Objective: The effect of anatomic location of stent placement on the outcome of iliac artery angioplasty and stenting is not defined. Analyses of patency rates of external iliac artery (EIA) and common iliac artery (CIA) stents have provided conflicting results and have not considered men and women independently. The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of the anatomic location of stenting on the outcome of iliac angioplasty and stent placement in both men and women. Methods: From 1995 to 1999, 247 iliac angioplasty and stent placement procedures (303 stents) were performed in 67 women and 122 men, and all were included in a retrospective cohort study. The criteria prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery) were followed. The TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classification was used to characterize the type of iliac lesions. Both univariate (Kaplan-Meier [KM]) and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) were used to determine the association among the variables, cumulative patency, limb salvage, and survival. Results: Indications for iliac angioplasty with stenting were disabling claudication (65%), limb salvage (33%), and blue toe syndrome (2%). Primary stenting was performed in 103 procedures (42%). Stents were placed selectively after iliac angioplasty mainly for residual stenosis or pressure gradient (43%). Patients with EIA stents, as compared with those who had CIA stents, had more extensive lesions (TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus type C lesions), poorer runoff, smaller vessel size, and less frequency of hyperlipidemia (P < .05). Primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 76%, 56%, and 56%, respectively, for patients with EIA stents and 92%, 85%, and 76%, respectively, for those with CIA stents. Although overall primary patency rates were significantly decreased in patients with EIA lesions (KM, log-rank test, P = .001), stratified analyses revealed that women with EIA stents had the poorest outcome, with 61%, 47%, and 23% primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, (KM, log-rank test, P <.001). Cox regression analysis identified EIA stenting (relative risk, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.3-7.9; P <.001) as an independent predictor of decreased primary patency in women but not in men. Conclusions: Women undergoing EIA angioplasty with stent placement have significantly reduced primary patency rates. Despite initial technical success, these patients are at increased risk of long-term failure and might require subsequent procedures to obtain clinical success. Conversely, men undergoing EIA stenting have a more favorable outcome than women.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine