Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant

Scott C. DeRoo, Hiroo Takayama, Samantha Nemeth, A. Reshad Garan, Paul Kurlansky, Susan Restaino, Paolo Colombo, Maryjane Farr, Yoshifumi Naka, Koji Takeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a useful treatment for severe primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant. The ideal timing of initiation is unknown. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 362 adult heart transplant recipients at our center between January 2011 and December 2017. Thirty-eight patients (10.5%) experienced severe primary graft dysfunction treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. As our institution adopted a prompt venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation policy in 2015, patients were stratified into pre-2015 (conservative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: n = 18) and post-2015 (prompt extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: n = 20) cohorts. Clinical outcomes were compared. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar (conservative vs prompt) except for age (51.82 vs 59.96 years, P =.036), aspartate transaminase (32 vs 21.5 U/L, P =.038), male donor (44.4 vs 80%, P =.042), and donor ejection fraction (60 vs 65%, P =.047). Median ischemic time was significantly longer in the conservative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cohort (210 vs 148 minutes, P =.005). Median time to initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was significantly shorter in the prompt extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cohort (7.26 vs 1.95 hours, P <.0001). There was no difference in intensive care unit stay or major complications. In-hospital mortality improved from 28% (conservative) to 5% (prompt, P =.083). Post-transplant survival at 1 year was 67% in the conservative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cohort and 90% in the prompt extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cohort (P =.117). There was no difference in the Kaplan–Meier survival curves (P =.071), although Cox regression suggested, but certainly did not prove, a 74.6% lower risk of mortality in the prompt extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group (P =.094). Conclusions: Prompt venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use for primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant results in excellent myocardial recovery and a possible decrease in mortality without increased risk of complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1576-1584.e3
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume158
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ECMO
  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • heart transplant
  • primary graft failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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