Coronary artery disease from atherosclerosis induced stenosis remains the leading cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and death worldwide, however extrinsic compression of coronary arteries from adjacent anatomical and pathological structures is an infrequent but important diagnosis to be aware of, especially given the nonspecific symptoms of chest pain that mimic angina in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and congenital heart disease. Non-invasive CT angiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for detection of coronary artery compression, pulmonary artery dilatation and pulmonary vascular compression. Although established guidelines are not available for management of left main coronary artery (LMCA) compression syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention and stent implantation remain a feasible option for the treatment, specifically for patients with a high surgical risk. Treatment of pulmonary vein or artery compression is more varied and determined by etiology. This review article is focused on detailed discussion of extrinsic compression of coronary arteries, mainly the LMCA and brief discussion on pulmonary vasculature compression by surrounding anatomical and pathological entities, with focus on pathophysiology, clinical features, complications and role of imaging in its diagnosis and management.
- Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM)
- Pulmonary hypertension (PHT)
- Pulmonary venous
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine