Face Mask Use and Persistence of Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Industrial Hog Operation Workers and Household Contacts, USA

Maya L. Nadimpalli, Jill R. Stewart, Elizabeth Pierce, Nora Pisanic, David C. Love, Devon Hall, Jesper Larsen, Karen C. Carroll, Tsigereda Tekle, Trish Perl, Christopher D. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS: At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25% increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume126
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

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Livestock
Masks
Nose
Staphylococcus aureus
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Tetracycline
Tetracycline Resistance
Nasal Cavity
Swine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Face Mask Use and Persistence of Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Industrial Hog Operation Workers and Household Contacts, USA. / Nadimpalli, Maya L.; Stewart, Jill R.; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Love, David C.; Hall, Devon; Larsen, Jesper; Carroll, Karen C.; Tekle, Tsigereda; Perl, Trish; Heaney, Christopher D.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 126, No. 12, 01.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nadimpalli, Maya L. ; Stewart, Jill R. ; Pierce, Elizabeth ; Pisanic, Nora ; Love, David C. ; Hall, Devon ; Larsen, Jesper ; Carroll, Karen C. ; Tekle, Tsigereda ; Perl, Trish ; Heaney, Christopher D. / Face Mask Use and Persistence of Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Industrial Hog Operation Workers and Household Contacts, USA. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2018 ; Vol. 126, No. 12.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS: At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25{\%} increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95{\%} CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95{\%} CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.",
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AU - Nadimpalli, Maya L.

AU - Stewart, Jill R.

AU - Pierce, Elizabeth

AU - Pisanic, Nora

AU - Love, David C.

AU - Hall, Devon

AU - Larsen, Jesper

AU - Carroll, Karen C.

AU - Tekle, Tsigereda

AU - Perl, Trish

AU - Heaney, Christopher D.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS: At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25% increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.

AB - BACKGROUND: Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS: At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25% increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.

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