Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke

A. A. Heddings, K. M. Friel, E. J. Plautz, S. Barbay, R. J. Nudo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to examine factors affecting motor impairment and recovery in a primate model of cortical infarction. Microelectrode stimulation techniques were used to delineate the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Microinfarcts affecting ∼30% of the hand representation were made by electrocoagulation of surface vessels. Electrophysiologic procedures were repeated at 1 month after the infarct to examine changes in motor map topography. Before the infarct, and at ∼1 week (early period) and 1 month (late period) after the infarct, manual performance was assessed on a reach-and-retrieval task that required skilled use of the digits. Contrary to the expected outcome, early impairment was inversely related to the amount of digit representation destroyed by the infarct. That is, animals with less involvement of the M1 digit area demonstrated the greatest motor deficit in the early postinfarct period. In addition, improvement in motor performance between early and late postinfarct periods was directly related to a decrease in the extent of the digit + wrist/forearm area in the final postinfarct map. These results suggest that specific aspects of motor-map remodeling are expressions of adaptive mechanisms that underlie functional recovery after stroke. Further, they suggest that the adaptive mechanisms underlying postinjury recovery differ in detail from those that operate in normal motor learning. The potential role of compensatory mechanisms in these phenomena is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-310
Number of pages10
JournalNeurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Volume14
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Hand
Stroke
Electrocoagulation
Motor Cortex
Microelectrodes
Wrist
Forearm
Infarction
Primates
Learning

Keywords

  • Hand function
  • Motor cortex
  • Neural plasticity
  • Rehabilitation
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Health Professions(all)

Cite this

Heddings, A. A., Friel, K. M., Plautz, E. J., Barbay, S., & Nudo, R. J. (2000). Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 14(4), 301-310.

Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke. / Heddings, A. A.; Friel, K. M.; Plautz, E. J.; Barbay, S.; Nudo, R. J.

In: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2000, p. 301-310.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heddings, AA, Friel, KM, Plautz, EJ, Barbay, S & Nudo, RJ 2000, 'Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke', Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 301-310.
Heddings AA, Friel KM, Plautz EJ, Barbay S, Nudo RJ. Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2000;14(4):301-310.
Heddings, A. A. ; Friel, K. M. ; Plautz, E. J. ; Barbay, S. ; Nudo, R. J. / Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke. In: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2000 ; Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 301-310.
@article{1a88c59cc21e43f1a25408d3a1b2d74d,
title = "Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke",
abstract = "The goal of the present study was to examine factors affecting motor impairment and recovery in a primate model of cortical infarction. Microelectrode stimulation techniques were used to delineate the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Microinfarcts affecting ∼30{\%} of the hand representation were made by electrocoagulation of surface vessels. Electrophysiologic procedures were repeated at 1 month after the infarct to examine changes in motor map topography. Before the infarct, and at ∼1 week (early period) and 1 month (late period) after the infarct, manual performance was assessed on a reach-and-retrieval task that required skilled use of the digits. Contrary to the expected outcome, early impairment was inversely related to the amount of digit representation destroyed by the infarct. That is, animals with less involvement of the M1 digit area demonstrated the greatest motor deficit in the early postinfarct period. In addition, improvement in motor performance between early and late postinfarct periods was directly related to a decrease in the extent of the digit + wrist/forearm area in the final postinfarct map. These results suggest that specific aspects of motor-map remodeling are expressions of adaptive mechanisms that underlie functional recovery after stroke. Further, they suggest that the adaptive mechanisms underlying postinjury recovery differ in detail from those that operate in normal motor learning. The potential role of compensatory mechanisms in these phenomena is discussed.",
keywords = "Hand function, Motor cortex, Neural plasticity, Rehabilitation, Stroke",
author = "Heddings, {A. A.} and Friel, {K. M.} and Plautz, {E. J.} and S. Barbay and Nudo, {R. J.}",
year = "2000",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "301--310",
journal = "Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation",
issn = "0888-4390",
publisher = "Sage Science Press",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors contributing to motor impairment and recovery after stroke

AU - Heddings, A. A.

AU - Friel, K. M.

AU - Plautz, E. J.

AU - Barbay, S.

AU - Nudo, R. J.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - The goal of the present study was to examine factors affecting motor impairment and recovery in a primate model of cortical infarction. Microelectrode stimulation techniques were used to delineate the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Microinfarcts affecting ∼30% of the hand representation were made by electrocoagulation of surface vessels. Electrophysiologic procedures were repeated at 1 month after the infarct to examine changes in motor map topography. Before the infarct, and at ∼1 week (early period) and 1 month (late period) after the infarct, manual performance was assessed on a reach-and-retrieval task that required skilled use of the digits. Contrary to the expected outcome, early impairment was inversely related to the amount of digit representation destroyed by the infarct. That is, animals with less involvement of the M1 digit area demonstrated the greatest motor deficit in the early postinfarct period. In addition, improvement in motor performance between early and late postinfarct periods was directly related to a decrease in the extent of the digit + wrist/forearm area in the final postinfarct map. These results suggest that specific aspects of motor-map remodeling are expressions of adaptive mechanisms that underlie functional recovery after stroke. Further, they suggest that the adaptive mechanisms underlying postinjury recovery differ in detail from those that operate in normal motor learning. The potential role of compensatory mechanisms in these phenomena is discussed.

AB - The goal of the present study was to examine factors affecting motor impairment and recovery in a primate model of cortical infarction. Microelectrode stimulation techniques were used to delineate the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Microinfarcts affecting ∼30% of the hand representation were made by electrocoagulation of surface vessels. Electrophysiologic procedures were repeated at 1 month after the infarct to examine changes in motor map topography. Before the infarct, and at ∼1 week (early period) and 1 month (late period) after the infarct, manual performance was assessed on a reach-and-retrieval task that required skilled use of the digits. Contrary to the expected outcome, early impairment was inversely related to the amount of digit representation destroyed by the infarct. That is, animals with less involvement of the M1 digit area demonstrated the greatest motor deficit in the early postinfarct period. In addition, improvement in motor performance between early and late postinfarct periods was directly related to a decrease in the extent of the digit + wrist/forearm area in the final postinfarct map. These results suggest that specific aspects of motor-map remodeling are expressions of adaptive mechanisms that underlie functional recovery after stroke. Further, they suggest that the adaptive mechanisms underlying postinjury recovery differ in detail from those that operate in normal motor learning. The potential role of compensatory mechanisms in these phenomena is discussed.

KW - Hand function

KW - Motor cortex

KW - Neural plasticity

KW - Rehabilitation

KW - Stroke

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034439687&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034439687&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11402880

AN - SCOPUS:0034439687

VL - 14

SP - 301

EP - 310

JO - Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation

JF - Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation

SN - 0888-4390

IS - 4

ER -