Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ

Steven A. Kliewer, Scott S. Sundseth, Stacey A. Jones, Peter J. Brown, G. Bruce Wisely, Cecilia S. Koble, Pallavi Devchand, Walter Wahli, Timothy M. Willson, James M. Lenhard, Jürgen M. Lehmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1759 Scopus citations

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ are key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are activated by a structurally diverse group of compounds including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. While thiazolidinediones and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 have been shown to bind to PPARγ, it has remained unclear whether other activators mediate their effects through direct interactions with the PPARs or via indirect mechanisms. Here, we describe a novel fibrate, designated GW2331, that is a high-affinity ligand for both PPARα and PPARγ. Using GW2331 as a radioligand in competition binding assays, we show that certain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids bind directly to PPARα and PPARγ at physiological concentrations, and that the eicosanoids 8(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14- prostaglandin J2 can function as subtype-selective ligands for PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. These data provide evidence that PPARs serve as physiological sensors of lipid levels and suggest a molecular mechanism whereby dietary fatty acids can modulate lipid homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4318-4323
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume94
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 29 1997

Keywords

  • fibrate
  • ligand
  • nuclear receptor
  • transcription

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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