Fluorescence imaging has revolutionized biomedical research over the past three decades. Its high molecular specificity and unrivalled single-molecule-level sensitivity have enabled breakthroughs in a number of research fields. For in vivo applications its major limitation is its superficial imaging depth, a result of random scattering in biological tissues causing exponential attenuation of the ballistic component of a light wave. Here, we present fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by combining single-cycle pulsed ultrasound modulation and digital optical phase conjugation. We demonstrate a near-isotropic three-dimensional localized sound-light interaction zone. With the exceptionally high optical gain provided by the digital optical phase conjugation system, we can deliver sufficient optical power to a focus inside highly scattering media for not only fluorescence imaging but also a variety of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy measurements. This technology paves the way for many important applications in both fundamental biology research and clinical studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics