Background: Both FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (G-nP) are used increasingly in the neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). This study aimed to compare neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and G-nP in the treatment of resectable (R) and borderline resectable (BR) head PDA. Methods: A single-institution retrospective review of R and BR patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy after NAT with FOLFIRINOX or G-nP was performed. Comparative analysis was performed using inverse-probability-weighted (IPW) estimators. The end points of the study were overall survival (OS) and an 80% reduction in CA19-9 with NAT. Results: In this study, 193 patients were analyzed, with 73 patients receiving FOLFIRINOX and 120 patients receiving G-nP. The median OS was 38.7 months for FOLFIRINOX versus 28.6 months for G-nP (p = 0.214). The patients who received FOLFIRINOX were younger and had fewer comorbidities, more BR disease, and larger tumors than those treated with G-nP (all p < 0.05). The two regimens were equally effective in achieving an 80% decline in CA19-9 (p = 0.8). The R0 resection rates were similar (80%), but FOLFIRINOX was associated with a reduction in pN1 disease (56% vs. 72%; p = 0.028). The receipt of adjuvant therapy was similar (74 vs. 75%; p = 0.79). In the Cox regression analysis with adjustment for baseline and treatment-related variables (FOLFIRINOX vs. G-nP, age, gender, computed tomography (CT) tumor size, BR vs. R, pre-NAT CA19-9), regimen type was not associated with a survival benefit. In the IPW analysis of 166 patients, however, the average treatment effect of FOLFIRINOX was to increase OS by 4.9 months compared with G-nP (p = 0.012). Conclusions: Both FOLFIRINOX and G-nP are viable options for neoadjuvant treatment of PDA. In this study, neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was associated with a 4.9-month improvement in survival compared with G-nP after adjustment for covariates.
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