Objective: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is typically diagnosed based on a characteristic clinical history; however, an oral food challenge (OFC) may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis or evaluate for the development of tolerance. FPIES OFC methods vary globally, and there is no universally agreed upon protocol. The objective of this review is to summarize reported FPIES OFC approaches and consider unmet needs in diagnosing and managing FPIES. Data Sources: PubMed database was searched using the keywords food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, oral food challenge, cow milk allergy, food allergy, non-immunoglobulin E–mediated food allergy and FPIES. Study Selections: Primary and review articles were selected based on relevance to the diagnosis of FPIES and the FPIES OFC. Results: We reviewed the history of FPIES and the evolution and variations in the FPIES OFC. A summary of current literature suggests that most patients with FPIES will react with 25% to 33% of a standard serving of the challenged food, there is little benefit to offering a divided dose challenge unless there is suspicion of specific immunoglobulin E to the food being challenged, reactions typically appear within 1 to 4 hours of ingestion, and reactions during OFC rarely result in emergency department or intensive care unit admission. Conclusion: International standardization in the FPIES OFC approach is necessary with particular attention to specific dose administration across challenged foods, timing between the patient's reaction and offered OFC to verify tolerance, patient safety considerations before the OFC, and identification of characteristics that would indicate home reintroduction is appropriate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine