FoxO transcription factors activate Akt and attenuate insulin signaling in heart by inhibiting protein phosphatases

Yan G. Ni, Na Wang, Dian J Cao, Nita Sachan, David J. Morris, Robert D. Gerard, Makoto Kuro-o, Beverly A Rothermel, Joseph A Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

156 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are rapidly expanding public health problems. Acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inactivate FoxO transcription factors, a class of highly conserved proteins important in numerous physiological functions. However, even as FoxO is a downstream target of insulin, FoxO factors also control upstream signaling elements governing insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that sustained activation of either FoxO1 or FoxO3 in cardiac myocytes increases basal levels of Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. FoxO-activated Akt directly interacts with and phosphorylates FoxO, providing feedback inhibition. We reported previously that FoxO factors attenuate cardiomyocyte calcineurin (PP2B) activity. We now show that calcineurin forms a complex with Akt and inhibition of calcineurin enhances Akt phosphorylation. In addition, FoxO activity suppresses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disrupts Akt-PP2A and Akt-calcineurin interactions. Repression of Akt-PP2A/B interactions and phosphatase activities contributes, at least in part, to FoxO-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. Resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, increases the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 and triggers Akt phosphorylation in heart. Importantly, FoxO-mediated increases in Akt activity diminish insulin signaling, as manifested by reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced membrane translocation of Glut4, and decreased insulin-triggered glucose uptake. Also, inactivation of the gene coding for FoxO3 enhances insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that changes in FoxO activity have a dose-responsive repressive effect on insulin signaling in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to altered Akt activation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20517-20522
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume104
Issue number51
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 18 2007

Fingerprint

Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
Transcription Factors
Calcineurin
Phosphorylation
Insulin
Protein Phosphatase 2
Cardiac Myocytes
Insulin Resistance
Glucose
Phosphotransferases
Gene Silencing
Somatomedins
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
Public Health
Membranes
Proteins

Keywords

  • Calcineurin
  • Cardiomyocyte
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Insulin resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

FoxO transcription factors activate Akt and attenuate insulin signaling in heart by inhibiting protein phosphatases. / Ni, Yan G.; Wang, Na; Cao, Dian J; Sachan, Nita; Morris, David J.; Gerard, Robert D.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Rothermel, Beverly A; Hill, Joseph A.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 104, No. 51, 18.12.2007, p. 20517-20522.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are rapidly expanding public health problems. Acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inactivate FoxO transcription factors, a class of highly conserved proteins important in numerous physiological functions. However, even as FoxO is a downstream target of insulin, FoxO factors also control upstream signaling elements governing insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that sustained activation of either FoxO1 or FoxO3 in cardiac myocytes increases basal levels of Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. FoxO-activated Akt directly interacts with and phosphorylates FoxO, providing feedback inhibition. We reported previously that FoxO factors attenuate cardiomyocyte calcineurin (PP2B) activity. We now show that calcineurin forms a complex with Akt and inhibition of calcineurin enhances Akt phosphorylation. In addition, FoxO activity suppresses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disrupts Akt-PP2A and Akt-calcineurin interactions. Repression of Akt-PP2A/B interactions and phosphatase activities contributes, at least in part, to FoxO-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. Resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, increases the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 and triggers Akt phosphorylation in heart. Importantly, FoxO-mediated increases in Akt activity diminish insulin signaling, as manifested by reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced membrane translocation of Glut4, and decreased insulin-triggered glucose uptake. Also, inactivation of the gene coding for FoxO3 enhances insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that changes in FoxO activity have a dose-responsive repressive effect on insulin signaling in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to altered Akt activation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose metabolism.",
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AU - Ni, Yan G.

AU - Wang, Na

AU - Cao, Dian J

AU - Sachan, Nita

AU - Morris, David J.

AU - Gerard, Robert D.

AU - Kuro-o, Makoto

AU - Rothermel, Beverly A

AU - Hill, Joseph A

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N2 - Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are rapidly expanding public health problems. Acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inactivate FoxO transcription factors, a class of highly conserved proteins important in numerous physiological functions. However, even as FoxO is a downstream target of insulin, FoxO factors also control upstream signaling elements governing insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that sustained activation of either FoxO1 or FoxO3 in cardiac myocytes increases basal levels of Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. FoxO-activated Akt directly interacts with and phosphorylates FoxO, providing feedback inhibition. We reported previously that FoxO factors attenuate cardiomyocyte calcineurin (PP2B) activity. We now show that calcineurin forms a complex with Akt and inhibition of calcineurin enhances Akt phosphorylation. In addition, FoxO activity suppresses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disrupts Akt-PP2A and Akt-calcineurin interactions. Repression of Akt-PP2A/B interactions and phosphatase activities contributes, at least in part, to FoxO-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. Resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, increases the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 and triggers Akt phosphorylation in heart. Importantly, FoxO-mediated increases in Akt activity diminish insulin signaling, as manifested by reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced membrane translocation of Glut4, and decreased insulin-triggered glucose uptake. Also, inactivation of the gene coding for FoxO3 enhances insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that changes in FoxO activity have a dose-responsive repressive effect on insulin signaling in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to altered Akt activation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose metabolism.

AB - Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are rapidly expanding public health problems. Acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inactivate FoxO transcription factors, a class of highly conserved proteins important in numerous physiological functions. However, even as FoxO is a downstream target of insulin, FoxO factors also control upstream signaling elements governing insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that sustained activation of either FoxO1 or FoxO3 in cardiac myocytes increases basal levels of Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. FoxO-activated Akt directly interacts with and phosphorylates FoxO, providing feedback inhibition. We reported previously that FoxO factors attenuate cardiomyocyte calcineurin (PP2B) activity. We now show that calcineurin forms a complex with Akt and inhibition of calcineurin enhances Akt phosphorylation. In addition, FoxO activity suppresses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disrupts Akt-PP2A and Akt-calcineurin interactions. Repression of Akt-PP2A/B interactions and phosphatase activities contributes, at least in part, to FoxO-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. Resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, increases the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 and triggers Akt phosphorylation in heart. Importantly, FoxO-mediated increases in Akt activity diminish insulin signaling, as manifested by reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced membrane translocation of Glut4, and decreased insulin-triggered glucose uptake. Also, inactivation of the gene coding for FoxO3 enhances insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that changes in FoxO activity have a dose-responsive repressive effect on insulin signaling in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to altered Akt activation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose metabolism.

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