Objectives: In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of frailty with the use of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Background: The burden of frailty in HFrEF is high, and the patterns of GDMT use according to frailty status have not been studied previously. Methods: A post hoc analysis of patients with HFrEF enrolled in the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence-Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure) trial was conducted. Frailty was assessed with the use of a frailty index (FI) using a 38-variable deficit model, and participants were categorized into 3 groups: class 1: nonfrail, FI <0.21); class 2: intermediate frailty, FI 0.21-0.31), and class 3: high frailty, FI >0.31). Multivariate-adjusted Cox models were used to study the association of frailty status with clinical outcomes. Use of optimal GDMT over time (beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) across frailty strata was assessed with the use of adjusted linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Results: The study included 879 participants, of which 56.3% had high frailty burden (class 3 FI). A higher frailty burden was associated with a significantly higher risk of HF hospitalization or death in adjusted Cox models: high frailty vs nonfrail HR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.20-2.58. On follow-up, participants with high frailty burden also had a significantly lower likelihood of achieving optimal GDMT: high frailty vs non-frail GDMT triple therapy use at study end: 17.7% vs 28.4%; P interaction, frailty class × time <0.001. Conclusions: Patients with HFrEF with a high burden of frailty have a significantly higher risk for adverse clinical outcomes and are less likely to be initiated and up-titrated on an optimal GDMT regimen.
- guideline-directed medical therapy
- heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine