Background: Electrophysiological resting state functional connectivity using high density electroencephalography (hdEEG) is gaining momentum. The increased resolution offered by hdEEG, usually either 128 or 256 channels, permits source localization of EEG signals on the cortical surface. However, the number of methodological options for the acquisition and analysis of resting state hdEEG is extremely large. These include acquisition duration, eyes open/closed, channel density, source localization methods, and functional connectivity metric. New methods: We undertake an extensive examination of the test-retest reliability and methodological agreement of all these options for regional measures of functional connectivity. Results: Power envelope connectivity shows larger test-retest reliability than imaginary coherence across all bands. While channel density doesn't strongly impact reliability or agreement, source localization methods produce systematically different functional connectivity, highlighting an important obstacle for replicating results in the literature. Most importantly, reliability and agreement often plateaus at or after 6 minutes of acquisition, well beyond the typical duration of 3 minutes. Finally, our study demonstrates that resting EEG can be as or more reliable than resting fMRI acquired in the same individuals. Conclusions: The competitive reliability and agreement of power envelope connectivity greatly increases our confidence in measuring resting state connectivity using EEG and its capacity to find individual differences.
- Methodological variability
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