Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow

Sam Ridgway, Dorian Houser, James Finneran, Don Carder, Mandy Keogh, William Van Bonn, Cynthia Smith, Miriam Scadeng, David Dubowitz, Robert Mattrey, Carl Hoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep. Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric slow waves (USW), therefore we used functional imaging of dolphins with and without diazepam to observe hemispheric differences in brain metabolism and blood flow. MRIs were used to register functional brain scans with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in trained dolphins. Scans using SPECT revealed unihemispheric blood flow reduction following diazepam doses greater than 0.55 mg kg -1 for these 180-200 kg animals. Scans using PET revealed hemispheric differences in brain glucose consumption when scans with and without diazepam were compared. The findings suggest that unihemispheric reduction in blood flow and glucose metabolism in the hemisphere showing USW are important features of unihemispheric sleep. Functional scans may also help to elucidate the degree of hemispheric laterality of sensory and motor systems as well as in neurotransmitter or molecular mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep in delphinoid cetaceans. The findings also demonstrate the potential value of functional scans to explore other aspects of dolphin brain physiology as well as pathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2902-2910
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume209
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2006

Fingerprint

Dolphins
Functional Neuroimaging
dolphin
dolphins
diazepam
blood flow
brain
Diazepam
metabolism
blood
tomography
image analysis
sleep
Brain
positron-emission tomography
Sleep
Single-Photon Emission-Computed Tomography
computed tomography
Positron-Emission Tomography
glucose

Keywords

  • Brain
  • Diazepam
  • Dolphin
  • Functional imaging
  • Hemisphere autonomy
  • MRI scan
  • PET scan
  • Slow wave
  • SPECT scan
  • Tursiops
  • Unihemispheric sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Physiology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science
  • Molecular Biology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Insect Science

Cite this

Ridgway, S., Houser, D., Finneran, J., Carder, D., Keogh, M., Van Bonn, W., ... Hoh, C. (2006). Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(15), 2902-2910. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02348

Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow. / Ridgway, Sam; Houser, Dorian; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 209, No. 15, 01.08.2006, p. 2902-2910.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ridgway, S, Houser, D, Finneran, J, Carder, D, Keogh, M, Van Bonn, W, Smith, C, Scadeng, M, Dubowitz, D, Mattrey, R & Hoh, C 2006, 'Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 209, no. 15, pp. 2902-2910. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02348
Ridgway S, Houser D, Finneran J, Carder D, Keogh M, Van Bonn W et al. Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006 Aug 1;209(15):2902-2910. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02348
Ridgway, Sam ; Houser, Dorian ; Finneran, James ; Carder, Don ; Keogh, Mandy ; Van Bonn, William ; Smith, Cynthia ; Scadeng, Miriam ; Dubowitz, David ; Mattrey, Robert ; Hoh, Carl. / Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006 ; Vol. 209, No. 15. pp. 2902-2910.
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