Fibroblastic spindle cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of rare soft tissue tumors that are increasingly recognized as associated with a variety of kinase gene fusions. We report two cases of GAB1-ABL1 fusions in spindle cell tumors that histologically overlap with neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK)-rearranged spindle cell tumors. The first case occurred in a 76-year-old female who had a large deep-seated spindle cell tumor composed of monotonous ovoid to spindle cells in a background of thick stromal collagen bands with prominent hyalinized vessels and inconspicuous mitoses (<1/10 HPF). Immunohistochemical stains showed co-expression of S100 and CD34. A GAB1-ABL1 fusion was detected by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing. The patient had a partial response to imatinib. The second case was previously described as a solitary fibrous tumor, occurring in a 9-year-old female with a cellular spindle cell tumor with patchy CD34 immunoexpression but no expression of S100. Upon clinicopathologic re-review, including anchored multiplex next-generation sequencing, a GAB1-ABL1 fusion was identified. In summary, we report the first two cases of spindle cell tumors with variable expression of CD34 and/or S100, driven by GAB1-ABL1 gene fusions with histologic overlap with NTRK-rearranged spindle cell tumors, suggesting that ABL-fusions may also be oncogenic drivers within this spectrum of tumors. These cases highlight the evolving understanding of fibroblastic spindle cell tumor biology and the utility of sequencing in identifying a targetable alteration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research