Radioresistance remains a major clinical challenge in cervical cancer therapy. However, the mechanism for the development of radioresistance in cervical cancer is unclear. Herein, we determined that growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45α (GADD45α) is decreased in radioresistant cervical cancer compared to radiosensitive cancer both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, silencing GADD45α prevents cervical cancer cells from undergoing radiation-induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. More importantly, our data show that the overexpression of GADD45α significantly enhances the radiosensitivity of radioresistant cervical cancer cells. These data show that GADD45α decreases the cytoplasmic distribution of APE1, thereby enhancing the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that GADD45α inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO), a nuclear APE1 export stimulator, by suppressing both endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in cervical cancer cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that decreased GADD45α expression significantly contributes to the development of radioresistance and that ectopic expression of GADD45α sensitizes cervical cancer cells to radiotherapy. GADD45α inhibits the NO-regulated cytoplasmic localization of APE1 through inhibiting eNOS and iNOS, thereby enhancing the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research