Background: Several studies have identified circulating biomarkers to be associated with the presence and severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent evidence supports a role for galectin-3 (Gal-3) and the mineralcorticoid aldosterone in left ventricular failure. However, studies on aldosterone together with Gal-3 in PAH are lacking. Objective: We investigated a novel Aldosterone-galectin-3 (Gal-3) tandem and several other potential PAH biomarkers and their association with the disease severity. Methods: A total of 57 patients, 41 with idiopathic PAH. (IPAH) and 16 with PAH associated with connective tissue disease (CTD), and 8 age-matched, non-relative controls were studied. Gal-3, aldosterone and other potential protein plasma concentrations were measured by single ELISA and multi-array MSD (Meso Scale Discovery) technology. Results: Gal-3 values were increased in both patients with IPAH (12.2±0.6 ng/mL; p<0.05) and with PAH-CTD (14.1 ±1.6 ng/mL; p<0.05) versus control (8.5±0.9 ng/mL), while aldosterone was significantly elevated in IPAH only (248.5 ±38.8 pg/mL vs control 71.9±18.2 pg/mL; p<0.05). In addition, aldosterone, Gal-3, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) values were all higher in patients in WHO functional class II-III versus PAH functional class I or controls. The vascular injury marker intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was increased in IPAH and PAH-CTD versus controls (559.5±18.2 pg/mL and 734.1 ±59.4 pg/mL vs controls 394.8±39.3 pg/mL, p<0.05, p<0.0001, respectively), whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and proinflammatory, anti-angiogenic interleukin-12 (IL-12) were elevated in PAH-CTD only (879.5±110.0 pg/mL and 391.2±70.3 pg/mL vs controls 489.8±44.6 pg/mL, p<0.01, and 102.1±15.2 pg/mL, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Heightened Gal-3 and aldosterone plasma concentrations in PAH patients indicate a role for Gal-3 signalling in the pathobiology of IPAH and PAH-CTD, and may serve as biomarkers for functional status and progression of disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine