Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Iacopo Olivotto, Martin S. Maron, A. Selcuk Adabag, Susan A. Casey, Daniela Vargiu, Mark S. Link, James E. Udelson, Franco Cecchi, Barry J. Maron

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270 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess gender-related differences in a multicenter population with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the impact of gender on the heterogeneous clinical profile and clinical course of HCM. METHODS: We studied 969 consecutive HCM patients from Italy and the U.S. followed over 6.2 ± 6.1 years. RESULTS: Male patients had a 3:2 predominance (59%), similar in Italy and the U.S. (p = 0.24). At initial evaluation, female patients were older and more symptomatic than male patients (47 ± 23 years vs. 38 ± 18 years; p < 0.001; mean New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class 1.8 ± 0.8 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6; p < 0.001), and more frequently showed left ventricular outflow obstruction (37% vs. 23%; p < 0.001). Moreover, female patients were less often diagnosed fortuitously by routine medical examination (23% vs. 41% in male patients, p < 0.001). Female gender was independently associated with the risk of symptom progression to NYHA functional classes III/IV or death from heart failure or stroke compared with male gender (independent relative hazard 1.5; p < 0.001), particularly patients ≥50 years of age and with resting outflow obstruction (p < 0.005). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mortality and risk of sudden death were similar in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Women with HCM were under-represented, older, and more symptomatic than men, and showed higher risk of progression to advanced heart failure or death, often associated with outflow obstruction. These gender-specific differences suggest that social, endocrine, or genetic factors may affect the diagnosis and clinical course of HCM. A heightened suspicion for HCM in women may allow for timely implementation of treatment strategies, including relief of obstruction and prevention of sudden death or stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)480-487
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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