Hypercalciuria is an important, identifiable, and reversible risk factor in stone formation. The foremost and most fundamental step in dissecting the genetics of hypercalciuria is understanding its pathophysiology. Hypercalciuria is a complex trait. This article outlines the various factors that compromise the attempt to dissect the genetics of hypercalciuria, summarizes the clinical and experimental monogenic causes of hypercalciuria, and outlines the initial results from attempts in studying polygenic hypercalciuria. Finally, the problem is set in perspective of the current database, technologic advances and limitations are highlighted, and prospects of further advances in the field are speculated upon.
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