Genetic Hypercalciuria: A Major Risk Factor in Kidney Stones

Orson W. Moe, David A. Bushinsky, John J. Kuiper

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Kidney stones are prevalent, cause considerable morbidity though little mortality. The most common metabolic abnormality in patients with kidney stones is hypercalciuria, which is a complex metabolic trait that is dependent on three major organs: the amount of dietary calcium absorbed, any net calcium released from bone resorption in excess of formation, and the extent to which filtered calcium is reabsorbed in the renal tubule. Each of these calcium fluxes is under control of number of factors and hormones, including parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. Whether a patient forms a kidney stone is dependent not only on the magnitude of the hypercalciuria but also on urinary volume, excretion of other ions, including oxalate, citrate, and phosphate, and on local factors in the urinary tract. Hypercalciuria, and resultant stone formation, is a partially inherited trait. Given the many determinants of not only urine calcium excretion, but also the other factors that determine whether a patient will form a kidney stone, it is clear that multiple genetic loci are involved. In this chapter, we will describe the progress made in understanding the genetic basis for hypercalciuria and stone formation in both experimental models and in man.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGenetics of Bone Biology and Skeletal Disease
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780128041987
ISBN (Print)9780128041826
StatePublished - 2018


  • Animal models
  • Calcium
  • GHS rats
  • Genetic
  • Hypercalciuria
  • Idiopathic hypercalciuria
  • Nephrolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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