Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Although multiple genetic and physiological factors interact to cause insulin resistance, deregulated signaling by phosphorylation is a common underlying mechanism. In particular, the specific phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms and signaling outputs of insulin are poorly understood in hepatocytes, which represents one of the most important insulin-responsive cell types. Using primary rat hepatocytes as a model system, we performed reductive dimethylation (ReDi)-based quantitative mass spectrometric analysis and characterized the phosphoproteome that is regulated by insulin as well as its key downstream kinases including Akt, mTORC1, and S6K. We identified a total of 12294 unique, confidently localized phosphorylation sites and 3805 phosphorylated proteins in this single cell type. Detailed bioinformatic analysis on each individual data set identified both known and previously unrecognized targets of this key insulin downstream effector pathway. Furthermore, integrated analysis of the hepatic Akt/mTORC1/S6K signaling axis allowed the delineation of the substrate specificity of several close-related kinases within the insulin signaling pathway. We expect that the data sets will serve as an invaluable resource, providing the foundation for future hypothesis-driven research that helps delineate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic syndrome.
- insulin resistance
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