Gross and Histologic Anatomy of the Pelvic Ureter: Clinical Applications to Pelvic Surgery

Lindsey A. Jackson, Denise M.O. Ramirez, Kelley S. Carrick, Rebecca Pedersen, Alexandra Spirtos, Marlene M. Corton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate relationships of the pelvic ureter to clinically relevant structures and to characterize the anatomy, histology, and nerve density of the distal ureter. METHODS: In this observational cadaveric study, 35 female cadavers were examined, 30 by gross dissections and five microscopically. Ureter length and segments of pelvic ureter were measured. Closest distances between the ureter and clinically relevant points were recorded. The distal pelvic ureter and surrounding parametrium were evaluated microscopically. Nerve density was analyzed using automated quantification of peripheral nerve immunostaining. Average measurements of nerve density in the anterior and posterior quadrants surrounding the ureter were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test. Descriptive statistics were used for analyses with distances reported as mean±SD (range). RESULTS: Gross dissections revealed ureter length of 26.3±1.4 (range 24-29) cm (right), 27.6±1.6 (25-30.5) cm (left). Lengths of ureter from pelvic brim to uterine artery crossover were 8.2±1.9 (4.4-11.5) cm (right), 8.5±1.5 (4.5-11.5) cm (left) and from crossover to bladder wall 3.3±0.7 (2.4-5.8) cm (right), 3.2±0.4 (2.6-4.1) cm (left). Intramural ureter length was 1.5±0.3 (1-2.2) cm (right) and 1.7±1.2 (0.8-2.5) cm (left). Distances from the ureter to uterine isthmus: median 1.7 (range 1-3.0) cm (right) and 1.7 (1.0-2.9) cm (left); lateral anterior vaginal fornix 1.5 (1.0-3.1) cm (right) and 1.7 (0.8-3.2) cm (left); lateral vaginal apex 1.3 (1.0-2.6) cm (right) and 1.2 (1.1-2.2) cm (left) were recorded. Microscopy demonstrated denser fibrovascularity posteromedial to the ureter. Peripheral nerve immunostaining revealed greater nerve density posterior to the distal ureter. CONCLUSION: Proximity of the ureter to the uterine isthmus and lateral anterior vagina mandates careful surgical technique and identification. The intricacy of tissue surrounding the distal ureter within the parametrium and the increased nerve density along the posterior distal ureter emphasizes the importance of avoiding extensive ureterolysis in this region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)896-904
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Volume133
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

Ureter
Anatomy
Peritoneum
Peripheral Nerves
Dissection
Uterine Artery
Vagina
Cadaver
Observational Studies
Microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Gross and Histologic Anatomy of the Pelvic Ureter : Clinical Applications to Pelvic Surgery. / Jackson, Lindsey A.; Ramirez, Denise M.O.; Carrick, Kelley S.; Pedersen, Rebecca; Spirtos, Alexandra; Corton, Marlene M.

In: Obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 133, No. 5, 01.05.2019, p. 896-904.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jackson, Lindsey A. ; Ramirez, Denise M.O. ; Carrick, Kelley S. ; Pedersen, Rebecca ; Spirtos, Alexandra ; Corton, Marlene M. / Gross and Histologic Anatomy of the Pelvic Ureter : Clinical Applications to Pelvic Surgery. In: Obstetrics and gynecology. 2019 ; Vol. 133, No. 5. pp. 896-904.
@article{f0c44d98bc784a068a4a29faa4628cbf,
title = "Gross and Histologic Anatomy of the Pelvic Ureter: Clinical Applications to Pelvic Surgery",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate relationships of the pelvic ureter to clinically relevant structures and to characterize the anatomy, histology, and nerve density of the distal ureter. METHODS: In this observational cadaveric study, 35 female cadavers were examined, 30 by gross dissections and five microscopically. Ureter length and segments of pelvic ureter were measured. Closest distances between the ureter and clinically relevant points were recorded. The distal pelvic ureter and surrounding parametrium were evaluated microscopically. Nerve density was analyzed using automated quantification of peripheral nerve immunostaining. Average measurements of nerve density in the anterior and posterior quadrants surrounding the ureter were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test. Descriptive statistics were used for analyses with distances reported as mean±SD (range). RESULTS: Gross dissections revealed ureter length of 26.3±1.4 (range 24-29) cm (right), 27.6±1.6 (25-30.5) cm (left). Lengths of ureter from pelvic brim to uterine artery crossover were 8.2±1.9 (4.4-11.5) cm (right), 8.5±1.5 (4.5-11.5) cm (left) and from crossover to bladder wall 3.3±0.7 (2.4-5.8) cm (right), 3.2±0.4 (2.6-4.1) cm (left). Intramural ureter length was 1.5±0.3 (1-2.2) cm (right) and 1.7±1.2 (0.8-2.5) cm (left). Distances from the ureter to uterine isthmus: median 1.7 (range 1-3.0) cm (right) and 1.7 (1.0-2.9) cm (left); lateral anterior vaginal fornix 1.5 (1.0-3.1) cm (right) and 1.7 (0.8-3.2) cm (left); lateral vaginal apex 1.3 (1.0-2.6) cm (right) and 1.2 (1.1-2.2) cm (left) were recorded. Microscopy demonstrated denser fibrovascularity posteromedial to the ureter. Peripheral nerve immunostaining revealed greater nerve density posterior to the distal ureter. CONCLUSION: Proximity of the ureter to the uterine isthmus and lateral anterior vagina mandates careful surgical technique and identification. The intricacy of tissue surrounding the distal ureter within the parametrium and the increased nerve density along the posterior distal ureter emphasizes the importance of avoiding extensive ureterolysis in this region.",
author = "Jackson, {Lindsey A.} and Ramirez, {Denise M.O.} and Carrick, {Kelley S.} and Rebecca Pedersen and Alexandra Spirtos and Corton, {Marlene M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/AOG.0000000000003221",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "133",
pages = "896--904",
journal = "Obstetrics and Gynecology",
issn = "0029-7844",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gross and Histologic Anatomy of the Pelvic Ureter

T2 - Clinical Applications to Pelvic Surgery

AU - Jackson, Lindsey A.

AU - Ramirez, Denise M.O.

AU - Carrick, Kelley S.

AU - Pedersen, Rebecca

AU - Spirtos, Alexandra

AU - Corton, Marlene M.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate relationships of the pelvic ureter to clinically relevant structures and to characterize the anatomy, histology, and nerve density of the distal ureter. METHODS: In this observational cadaveric study, 35 female cadavers were examined, 30 by gross dissections and five microscopically. Ureter length and segments of pelvic ureter were measured. Closest distances between the ureter and clinically relevant points were recorded. The distal pelvic ureter and surrounding parametrium were evaluated microscopically. Nerve density was analyzed using automated quantification of peripheral nerve immunostaining. Average measurements of nerve density in the anterior and posterior quadrants surrounding the ureter were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test. Descriptive statistics were used for analyses with distances reported as mean±SD (range). RESULTS: Gross dissections revealed ureter length of 26.3±1.4 (range 24-29) cm (right), 27.6±1.6 (25-30.5) cm (left). Lengths of ureter from pelvic brim to uterine artery crossover were 8.2±1.9 (4.4-11.5) cm (right), 8.5±1.5 (4.5-11.5) cm (left) and from crossover to bladder wall 3.3±0.7 (2.4-5.8) cm (right), 3.2±0.4 (2.6-4.1) cm (left). Intramural ureter length was 1.5±0.3 (1-2.2) cm (right) and 1.7±1.2 (0.8-2.5) cm (left). Distances from the ureter to uterine isthmus: median 1.7 (range 1-3.0) cm (right) and 1.7 (1.0-2.9) cm (left); lateral anterior vaginal fornix 1.5 (1.0-3.1) cm (right) and 1.7 (0.8-3.2) cm (left); lateral vaginal apex 1.3 (1.0-2.6) cm (right) and 1.2 (1.1-2.2) cm (left) were recorded. Microscopy demonstrated denser fibrovascularity posteromedial to the ureter. Peripheral nerve immunostaining revealed greater nerve density posterior to the distal ureter. CONCLUSION: Proximity of the ureter to the uterine isthmus and lateral anterior vagina mandates careful surgical technique and identification. The intricacy of tissue surrounding the distal ureter within the parametrium and the increased nerve density along the posterior distal ureter emphasizes the importance of avoiding extensive ureterolysis in this region.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To further evaluate relationships of the pelvic ureter to clinically relevant structures and to characterize the anatomy, histology, and nerve density of the distal ureter. METHODS: In this observational cadaveric study, 35 female cadavers were examined, 30 by gross dissections and five microscopically. Ureter length and segments of pelvic ureter were measured. Closest distances between the ureter and clinically relevant points were recorded. The distal pelvic ureter and surrounding parametrium were evaluated microscopically. Nerve density was analyzed using automated quantification of peripheral nerve immunostaining. Average measurements of nerve density in the anterior and posterior quadrants surrounding the ureter were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test. Descriptive statistics were used for analyses with distances reported as mean±SD (range). RESULTS: Gross dissections revealed ureter length of 26.3±1.4 (range 24-29) cm (right), 27.6±1.6 (25-30.5) cm (left). Lengths of ureter from pelvic brim to uterine artery crossover were 8.2±1.9 (4.4-11.5) cm (right), 8.5±1.5 (4.5-11.5) cm (left) and from crossover to bladder wall 3.3±0.7 (2.4-5.8) cm (right), 3.2±0.4 (2.6-4.1) cm (left). Intramural ureter length was 1.5±0.3 (1-2.2) cm (right) and 1.7±1.2 (0.8-2.5) cm (left). Distances from the ureter to uterine isthmus: median 1.7 (range 1-3.0) cm (right) and 1.7 (1.0-2.9) cm (left); lateral anterior vaginal fornix 1.5 (1.0-3.1) cm (right) and 1.7 (0.8-3.2) cm (left); lateral vaginal apex 1.3 (1.0-2.6) cm (right) and 1.2 (1.1-2.2) cm (left) were recorded. Microscopy demonstrated denser fibrovascularity posteromedial to the ureter. Peripheral nerve immunostaining revealed greater nerve density posterior to the distal ureter. CONCLUSION: Proximity of the ureter to the uterine isthmus and lateral anterior vagina mandates careful surgical technique and identification. The intricacy of tissue surrounding the distal ureter within the parametrium and the increased nerve density along the posterior distal ureter emphasizes the importance of avoiding extensive ureterolysis in this region.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065346869&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065346869&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003221

DO - 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003221

M3 - Article

C2 - 30969205

AN - SCOPUS:85065346869

VL - 133

SP - 896

EP - 904

JO - Obstetrics and Gynecology

JF - Obstetrics and Gynecology

SN - 0029-7844

IS - 5

ER -