Gypsy moth genome provides insights into flight capability and virus–host interactions

Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Emily A. Rex, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H. Janzen, Nick V Grishin, Don Brad Gammon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Since its accidental introduction to Massachusetts in the late 1800s, the European gypsy moth (EGM; Lymantria dispar dispar) has become a major defoliator in North American forests. However, in part because females are flightless, the spread of the EGM across the United States and Canada has been relatively slow over the past 150 years. In contrast, females of the Asian gypsy moth (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica) subspecies have fully developed wings and can fly, thereby posing a serious economic threat if populations are established in North America. To explore the genetic determinants of these phenotypic differences, we sequenced and annotated a draft genome of L. dispar and used it to identify genetic variation between EGM and AGM populations. The 865-Mb gypsy moth genome is the largest Lepidoptera genome sequenced to date and encodes ∼13,300 proteins. Gene ontology analyses of EGM and AGM samples revealed divergence between these populations in genes enriched for several gene ontology categories related to muscle adaptation, chemosensory communication, detoxification of food plant foliage, and immunity. These genetic differences likely contribute to variations in flight ability, chemical sensing, and pathogen interactions among EGM and AGM populations. Finally, we use our new genomic and transcrip-tomic tools to provide insights into genome-wide gene-expression changes of the gypsy moth after viral infection. Characterizing the immunological response of gypsy moths to virus infection may aid in the improvement of virus-based bioinsecticides currently used to control larval populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1669-1678
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume116
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 29 2019

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Moths
Genome
Gene Ontology
Population
Virus Diseases
Plant Immunity
Edible Plants
Lepidoptera
Aptitude
North America
Canada
Communication
Economics
Viruses
Gene Expression
Muscles
Genes
Proteins

Keywords

  • Gypsy moth
  • Lepidoptera
  • Lymantria dispar
  • Virus–host interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Gypsy moth genome provides insights into flight capability and virus–host interactions. / Zhang, Jing; Cong, Qian; Rex, Emily A.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H.; Grishin, Nick V; Gammon, Don Brad.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, No. 5, 29.01.2019, p. 1669-1678.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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