Handheld shape discrimination hyperacuity test on a mobile device for remote monitoring of visual function in maculopathy

Yi Zhong Wang, Yu Guang He, Gina Mitzel, Song Zhang, Mike Bartlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Purpose. Frequency monitoring of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is crucial for timely intervention. This study evaluated a handheld shape discrimination hyperacuity (hSDH) test iPhone app designed for visual function selfmonitoring in patients with AMD and DR. Methods. One hundred subjects (27 visually normal, 37 with AMD, and 36 with DR) were included based on clinical documentation and visual acuity of 20/100 or better. The hSDH test was implemented on the iOS platform. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the hSDH test with a previously established desktop SDH (dSDH) test and to assess the effect of disease severity on the hSDH test. A user survey was also conducted to assess the usability of the hSDH test on the mobile device. Results. The hSDH test and dSDH test were highly correlated (r = 0.88, P< 0.0001). Bland- Altman analysis indicated no significant difference in hSDH and dSDH measurements. Oneway ANOVA indicated that the mean hSDH measurement of the eyes with advanced AMD (n = 16) or with severe to very severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR) (n = 12) was significantly worse than that of the eyes with intermediate AMD (n = 11) or with mild to moderate NPDR (n = 11) (P< 0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of 46 patients (10 with AMD and 36 with DR) who completed the usability survey reported that the hSDH test was easy to use. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that the hSDH test on a mobile device is comparable to PC-based testing methods. As a mobile app, it is intuitive to use, readily accessible, and sensitive to the severity of maculopathy. It has the potential to provide patients having maculopathy with a new tool to monitor their vision at home.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5497-5504
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2013


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Remote vision self-testing
  • Shape discrimination
  • Visual acuity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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