High and low hardy male and female undergraduates completed an evaluative threat task that was manipulated to influence appraisals of the task in a manner consistent with hardiness theory. High hardy subjects displayed higher frustration tolerance, appraised the task as less threatening, and responded to the task with more positive and less negative affect than did low hardy subjects. Although all subjects displayed increased heart rate (HR) in response to the experimental task, high hardy men displayed lower HR elevations during the task than did low hardy men. Hardiness did not influence HR responses among women. Manipulations of task appraisal revealed a similar pattern where men in the high hardiness appraisal conditions displayed lower levels of physiological arousal during the task than did men in the low hardiness appraisal conditions. Appraisal manipulations had either no effect or the opposite effect among women.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science