Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season

Ana M. Rule, Otis Apau, Steven H. Ahrenholz, Scott E. Brueck, William G. Lindsley, Marie A. de Perio, John D. Noti, Ronald E. Shaffer, Richard Rothman, Alina Grigorovitch, Bahar Noorbakhsh, Donald H. Beezhold, Patrick L. Yorio, Trish M. Perl, Edward M. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction Healthcare personnel are at high risk for exposure to influenza by direct and indirect contact, droplets and aerosols, and by aerosol generating procedures. Information on air and surface influenza contamination is needed to assist in developing guidance for proper prevention and control strategies. To understand the vulnerabilities of healthcare personnel, we measured influenza in the breathing zone of healthcare personnel, in air and on surfaces within a healthcare setting, and on filtering facepiece respirators worn by healthcare personnel when conducting patient care. Methods Thirty participants were recruited from an adult emergency department during the 2015 influenza season. Participants wore personal bioaerosol samplers for six hours of their work shift, submitted used filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks and completed questionnaires to assess frequency and types of interactions with potentially infected patients. Room air samples were collected using bioaerosol samplers, and surface swabs were collected from high-contact surfaces within the adult emergency department. Personal and room bioaerosol samples, surface swabs, and filtering facepiece respirators were analyzed for influenza A by polymerase chain reaction. Results Influenza was identified in 42% (53/125) of personal bioaerosol samples, 43% (28/ 96) of room bioaerosol samples, 76% (23/30) of pooled surface samples, and 25% (3/12) of the filtering facepiece respirators analyzed. Influenza copy numbers were greater in personal bioaerosol samples (17 to 631 copies) compared to room bioaerosol samples (16 to 323 copies). Regression analysis suggested that the amount of influenza in personal samples was approximately 2.3 times the amount in room samples (Wald χ2 = 16.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Healthcare personnel may encounter increased concentrations of influenza virus when in close proximity to patients. Occupations that require contact with patients are at an increased risk for influenza exposure, which may occur throughout the influenza season. Filtering facepiece respirators may become contaminated with influenza when used during patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0203223
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

Fingerprint

Respirators
influenza
health services
Human Influenza
human resources
bioaerosols
Hospital Emergency Service
Personnel
Delivery of Health Care
Mechanical Ventilators
Aerosols
sampling
Air
work schedules
patient care
samplers
Polymerase chain reaction
aerosols
air
Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Rule, A. M., Apau, O., Ahrenholz, S. H., Brueck, S. E., Lindsley, W. G., de Perio, M. A., ... Fisher, E. M. (2018). Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. PLoS One, 13(8), [e0203223]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203223

Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. / Rule, Ana M.; Apau, Otis; Ahrenholz, Steven H.; Brueck, Scott E.; Lindsley, William G.; de Perio, Marie A.; Noti, John D.; Shaffer, Ronald E.; Rothman, Richard; Grigorovitch, Alina; Noorbakhsh, Bahar; Beezhold, Donald H.; Yorio, Patrick L.; Perl, Trish M.; Fisher, Edward M.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 8, e0203223, 01.08.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rule, AM, Apau, O, Ahrenholz, SH, Brueck, SE, Lindsley, WG, de Perio, MA, Noti, JD, Shaffer, RE, Rothman, R, Grigorovitch, A, Noorbakhsh, B, Beezhold, DH, Yorio, PL, Perl, TM & Fisher, EM 2018, 'Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season', PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 8, e0203223. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203223
Rule AM, Apau O, Ahrenholz SH, Brueck SE, Lindsley WG, de Perio MA et al. Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1;13(8). e0203223. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203223
Rule, Ana M. ; Apau, Otis ; Ahrenholz, Steven H. ; Brueck, Scott E. ; Lindsley, William G. ; de Perio, Marie A. ; Noti, John D. ; Shaffer, Ronald E. ; Rothman, Richard ; Grigorovitch, Alina ; Noorbakhsh, Bahar ; Beezhold, Donald H. ; Yorio, Patrick L. ; Perl, Trish M. ; Fisher, Edward M. / Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. In: PLoS One. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 8.
@article{c6550824a2b74f9583c9a401226cb11a,
title = "Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season",
abstract = "Introduction Healthcare personnel are at high risk for exposure to influenza by direct and indirect contact, droplets and aerosols, and by aerosol generating procedures. Information on air and surface influenza contamination is needed to assist in developing guidance for proper prevention and control strategies. To understand the vulnerabilities of healthcare personnel, we measured influenza in the breathing zone of healthcare personnel, in air and on surfaces within a healthcare setting, and on filtering facepiece respirators worn by healthcare personnel when conducting patient care. Methods Thirty participants were recruited from an adult emergency department during the 2015 influenza season. Participants wore personal bioaerosol samplers for six hours of their work shift, submitted used filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks and completed questionnaires to assess frequency and types of interactions with potentially infected patients. Room air samples were collected using bioaerosol samplers, and surface swabs were collected from high-contact surfaces within the adult emergency department. Personal and room bioaerosol samples, surface swabs, and filtering facepiece respirators were analyzed for influenza A by polymerase chain reaction. Results Influenza was identified in 42{\%} (53/125) of personal bioaerosol samples, 43{\%} (28/ 96) of room bioaerosol samples, 76{\%} (23/30) of pooled surface samples, and 25{\%} (3/12) of the filtering facepiece respirators analyzed. Influenza copy numbers were greater in personal bioaerosol samples (17 to 631 copies) compared to room bioaerosol samples (16 to 323 copies). Regression analysis suggested that the amount of influenza in personal samples was approximately 2.3 times the amount in room samples (Wald χ2 = 16.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Healthcare personnel may encounter increased concentrations of influenza virus when in close proximity to patients. Occupations that require contact with patients are at an increased risk for influenza exposure, which may occur throughout the influenza season. Filtering facepiece respirators may become contaminated with influenza when used during patient care.",
author = "Rule, {Ana M.} and Otis Apau and Ahrenholz, {Steven H.} and Brueck, {Scott E.} and Lindsley, {William G.} and {de Perio}, {Marie A.} and Noti, {John D.} and Shaffer, {Ronald E.} and Richard Rothman and Alina Grigorovitch and Bahar Noorbakhsh and Beezhold, {Donald H.} and Yorio, {Patrick L.} and Perl, {Trish M.} and Fisher, {Edward M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0203223",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season

AU - Rule, Ana M.

AU - Apau, Otis

AU - Ahrenholz, Steven H.

AU - Brueck, Scott E.

AU - Lindsley, William G.

AU - de Perio, Marie A.

AU - Noti, John D.

AU - Shaffer, Ronald E.

AU - Rothman, Richard

AU - Grigorovitch, Alina

AU - Noorbakhsh, Bahar

AU - Beezhold, Donald H.

AU - Yorio, Patrick L.

AU - Perl, Trish M.

AU - Fisher, Edward M.

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - Introduction Healthcare personnel are at high risk for exposure to influenza by direct and indirect contact, droplets and aerosols, and by aerosol generating procedures. Information on air and surface influenza contamination is needed to assist in developing guidance for proper prevention and control strategies. To understand the vulnerabilities of healthcare personnel, we measured influenza in the breathing zone of healthcare personnel, in air and on surfaces within a healthcare setting, and on filtering facepiece respirators worn by healthcare personnel when conducting patient care. Methods Thirty participants were recruited from an adult emergency department during the 2015 influenza season. Participants wore personal bioaerosol samplers for six hours of their work shift, submitted used filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks and completed questionnaires to assess frequency and types of interactions with potentially infected patients. Room air samples were collected using bioaerosol samplers, and surface swabs were collected from high-contact surfaces within the adult emergency department. Personal and room bioaerosol samples, surface swabs, and filtering facepiece respirators were analyzed for influenza A by polymerase chain reaction. Results Influenza was identified in 42% (53/125) of personal bioaerosol samples, 43% (28/ 96) of room bioaerosol samples, 76% (23/30) of pooled surface samples, and 25% (3/12) of the filtering facepiece respirators analyzed. Influenza copy numbers were greater in personal bioaerosol samples (17 to 631 copies) compared to room bioaerosol samples (16 to 323 copies). Regression analysis suggested that the amount of influenza in personal samples was approximately 2.3 times the amount in room samples (Wald χ2 = 16.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Healthcare personnel may encounter increased concentrations of influenza virus when in close proximity to patients. Occupations that require contact with patients are at an increased risk for influenza exposure, which may occur throughout the influenza season. Filtering facepiece respirators may become contaminated with influenza when used during patient care.

AB - Introduction Healthcare personnel are at high risk for exposure to influenza by direct and indirect contact, droplets and aerosols, and by aerosol generating procedures. Information on air and surface influenza contamination is needed to assist in developing guidance for proper prevention and control strategies. To understand the vulnerabilities of healthcare personnel, we measured influenza in the breathing zone of healthcare personnel, in air and on surfaces within a healthcare setting, and on filtering facepiece respirators worn by healthcare personnel when conducting patient care. Methods Thirty participants were recruited from an adult emergency department during the 2015 influenza season. Participants wore personal bioaerosol samplers for six hours of their work shift, submitted used filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks and completed questionnaires to assess frequency and types of interactions with potentially infected patients. Room air samples were collected using bioaerosol samplers, and surface swabs were collected from high-contact surfaces within the adult emergency department. Personal and room bioaerosol samples, surface swabs, and filtering facepiece respirators were analyzed for influenza A by polymerase chain reaction. Results Influenza was identified in 42% (53/125) of personal bioaerosol samples, 43% (28/ 96) of room bioaerosol samples, 76% (23/30) of pooled surface samples, and 25% (3/12) of the filtering facepiece respirators analyzed. Influenza copy numbers were greater in personal bioaerosol samples (17 to 631 copies) compared to room bioaerosol samples (16 to 323 copies). Regression analysis suggested that the amount of influenza in personal samples was approximately 2.3 times the amount in room samples (Wald χ2 = 16.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Healthcare personnel may encounter increased concentrations of influenza virus when in close proximity to patients. Occupations that require contact with patients are at an increased risk for influenza exposure, which may occur throughout the influenza season. Filtering facepiece respirators may become contaminated with influenza when used during patient care.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053001533&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053001533&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0203223

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0203223

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 8

M1 - e0203223

ER -