Heart disease in diabetic patients

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Abstract

Cardiac artery disease and heart failure are major causes for morbidity and mortality in diabetes in general and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in particular. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are more common in diabetes and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in diabetics is two-fold to four-fold higher than in nondiabetics. In those with CKD the incidence of cardiovascular complications is nearly two-fold higher than those without CKD. Recent studies suggest that the pathophysiology of cardiac disease is complex process involving both microvascular and macrovascular disease. In addition, myocardial lipotoxicity may be a novel contributing factor particularly in type 2 diabetics. Compelling evidence from cardiovascular outcomes trials indicates that treatment with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system are cardioprotective in diabetics with microalbuminuria and early stages of kidney disease. Multiple risk factor intervention aimed at optimal blood pressure control (BP <130/<80 mmHG), lowering LDL cholesterol below 100 mg/dl, lowering triglyceride level to 150 mg/dl, A1C <6.5%, treatment with an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker, administration of once daily low-dose aspirin and smoking cessation together reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetics. Novel studies including diabetics with nephropathy aimed at improving outcomes in diabetics by treatment of anemia and optimal control of dyslipidemia are now underway. These and other clinical trials should provide important new insights into improving the quality of life in diabetics and ultimately preventing cardiac disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-378
Number of pages7
JournalSeminars in nephrology
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2005

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Keywords

  • Albuminuria heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Diabetics
  • Kidney disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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