Heart transplantation in children: An international survey

D. Glenn Pennington, Nancy Noedel, Lawrence R. McBride, Keith S. Naunheim, W. Steves Ring

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22 Scopus citations


A survey of cardiac transplantation in children provided data from 381 transplantations in 362 patients from 32 centers in the United States and ten international centers. The number of transplantations continues to increase, in part because of transplantations in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and patients with congenital defects. The immunosuppression regimens were more uniform than in the 1985 survey, and triple therapy was most common. Actuarial survival rates were 85% at 1 month, 72% at 1 year, 64% at 3 years, and 60% at 5 years. However, these improved rates are still not equal to the survival of the overall cardiac transplant population, in part because of lower survival rates in neonates. Ventricular dysfunction and rejection, rather than infection, were the leading causes of death. Rejection and infection were the most frequent complications. Also common were hypertension (39%) and seizures (25%), whereas coronary artery disease (8%) was unusual. Functional results were excellent in 85%, and only 7% were disabled. Questions concerning growth rates and many other aspects cannot yet be answered. However, it is apparent that cardiac transplantation in the pediatric population is a very worthwhile endeavor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)710-715
Number of pages6
JournalThe Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1991


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery

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