The Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) aims to provide an unobstructed systemic outflow tract, unrestrictive inter-atrial communication, controlled source of pulmonary blood flow, and reliable source of coronary blood flow. The hybrid palliative strategy of pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting has emerged as an alternative treatment for neonates with HLHS. Neonates who have undergone a hybrid Norwood but are not candidates for the three-stage single-ventricle pathway may need heart transplantation. Patients who have undergone hybrid Norwood or those with visceral heterotaxy who have undergone ductal stenting and bilateral PA bands represent a technically challenging group of patients for heart transplantation, but it appears to be a favorable approach and we describe our experience with three patients who underwent heart transplant after a hybrid Norwood procedure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine