The number of papers published in the topic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increased remarkably from last year. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection has increased the incidence of HCC. However, studies confirm that obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are important factors for the development of HCC in the United States. Alpha-fetoprotein is the most widely used tumor marker, but has poor diagnostic accuracy and ethnic variability. Using proteonomic genome analysis, new candidate tumor markers have been identified but await validation. Dynamic gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging seems to be more sensitive than spiral computed tomography scan for the identification of HCC, and seems to be modality of choice in most centers. Transplantation offers the best long-term option for patients with HCC, but in a certain group of patients without portal hypertension and well-preserved liver function, surgical resection is an acceptable option. A large study from Europe confirms the utility of resection in some patients with early HCC. However, most patients are not candidates for curative intervention. A meta-analysis and a randomized, controlled trial showed that chemoembolization offers a survival advantage in selected patients (Child class A and B) with nonresectable HCC. Finally, chemoprevention in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection with interferon is a promising strategy to prevennt HCC.
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