The number of papers published regarding hepatocellular carcinoma increased remarkably over the previous year. The 1-year survival for hepatocellular carcinoma has only improved slightly over the past 20 years, while the overall survival has remained unchanged. Hepatitis B genotypes, specifically genotype B, correlate with better response and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma caused by this chronic infection. A consensus conference recommended that patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A or B cirrhosis should be screened with ultrasound and α-fetoprotein measurement every 6 months. Using microarray technology, several groups established the gene expression for human hepatocellular carcinoma including the identification of potential genes involved in hepatic carcinogenesis. Dynamic gadolinium MRI is the preferred imaging of choice for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma, but contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound is a new imaging technique able to differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic liver lesions. Overall, transplantation is the best long-term therapeutic option, but in patients without portal hypertension and well-preserved liver function, resection may be preferable.
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