Heroin attenuates the negative consequences of cocaine in a runway model of self-administration

Daniel Guzman, Aaron Ettenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It has been presumed that the combination of cocaine (COC)+heroin (HER) is more reinforcing than either of the two drugs alone, thus leading to their coadministration ("speedballing"). An alternative hypothesis is that HER serves to attenuate the undesired negative effects of COC. To test this notion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were trained to run a straight alley for a daily intravenous (IV) injection of COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for 14 trials. Studies in our laboratory have shown that such animals begin to exhibit approach-avoidance behaviors ("retreats") stemming from concurrent positive and negative associations with the goal box (which, in turn, are the result of COC's immediate rewarding and subsequent dysphoric actions). Thus, retreats can be used as a reliable index of COC's anxiogenic side effects. Following 14 COC-reinforced trials, animals were split into three groups matched on mean retreat frequency. One group (n=11) received IV COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for seven additional trials; the remaining two groups (n=10 each) received an IV injection of COC mixed in a single solution with either a low dose (0.025 mg/kg/injection) or a high dose (0.1 mg/kg/injection) of HER. It was hypothesized that adding HER would attenuate the negative consequences of COC administration and thereby produce a reliable decrease in the occurrence of retreats. The resulting data were consistent with this hypothesis, suggesting that "speedballing" in human addicts may be motivated by a desire to reduce the negative impact of COC use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-324
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume79
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2004

Fingerprint

Self Administration
Heroin
Cocaine
Injections
Intravenous Injections
Animals
Avoidance Learning
Sprague Dawley Rats
Rats
Research Design

Keywords

  • Cocaine
  • Drug self-administration
  • Heroin
  • Operant behavior
  • Runway
  • Speedball

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Heroin attenuates the negative consequences of cocaine in a runway model of self-administration. / Guzman, Daniel; Ettenberg, Aaron.

In: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Vol. 79, No. 2, 01.10.2004, p. 317-324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ef43a7bc59cc42efb2074e82cb1169f2,
title = "Heroin attenuates the negative consequences of cocaine in a runway model of self-administration",
abstract = "It has been presumed that the combination of cocaine (COC)+heroin (HER) is more reinforcing than either of the two drugs alone, thus leading to their coadministration ({"}speedballing{"}). An alternative hypothesis is that HER serves to attenuate the undesired negative effects of COC. To test this notion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were trained to run a straight alley for a daily intravenous (IV) injection of COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for 14 trials. Studies in our laboratory have shown that such animals begin to exhibit approach-avoidance behaviors ({"}retreats{"}) stemming from concurrent positive and negative associations with the goal box (which, in turn, are the result of COC's immediate rewarding and subsequent dysphoric actions). Thus, retreats can be used as a reliable index of COC's anxiogenic side effects. Following 14 COC-reinforced trials, animals were split into three groups matched on mean retreat frequency. One group (n=11) received IV COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for seven additional trials; the remaining two groups (n=10 each) received an IV injection of COC mixed in a single solution with either a low dose (0.025 mg/kg/injection) or a high dose (0.1 mg/kg/injection) of HER. It was hypothesized that adding HER would attenuate the negative consequences of COC administration and thereby produce a reliable decrease in the occurrence of retreats. The resulting data were consistent with this hypothesis, suggesting that {"}speedballing{"} in human addicts may be motivated by a desire to reduce the negative impact of COC use.",
keywords = "Cocaine, Drug self-administration, Heroin, Operant behavior, Runway, Speedball",
author = "Daniel Guzman and Aaron Ettenberg",
year = "2004",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.pbb.2004.08.009",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "79",
pages = "317--324",
journal = "Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior",
issn = "0091-3057",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heroin attenuates the negative consequences of cocaine in a runway model of self-administration

AU - Guzman, Daniel

AU - Ettenberg, Aaron

PY - 2004/10/1

Y1 - 2004/10/1

N2 - It has been presumed that the combination of cocaine (COC)+heroin (HER) is more reinforcing than either of the two drugs alone, thus leading to their coadministration ("speedballing"). An alternative hypothesis is that HER serves to attenuate the undesired negative effects of COC. To test this notion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were trained to run a straight alley for a daily intravenous (IV) injection of COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for 14 trials. Studies in our laboratory have shown that such animals begin to exhibit approach-avoidance behaviors ("retreats") stemming from concurrent positive and negative associations with the goal box (which, in turn, are the result of COC's immediate rewarding and subsequent dysphoric actions). Thus, retreats can be used as a reliable index of COC's anxiogenic side effects. Following 14 COC-reinforced trials, animals were split into three groups matched on mean retreat frequency. One group (n=11) received IV COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for seven additional trials; the remaining two groups (n=10 each) received an IV injection of COC mixed in a single solution with either a low dose (0.025 mg/kg/injection) or a high dose (0.1 mg/kg/injection) of HER. It was hypothesized that adding HER would attenuate the negative consequences of COC administration and thereby produce a reliable decrease in the occurrence of retreats. The resulting data were consistent with this hypothesis, suggesting that "speedballing" in human addicts may be motivated by a desire to reduce the negative impact of COC use.

AB - It has been presumed that the combination of cocaine (COC)+heroin (HER) is more reinforcing than either of the two drugs alone, thus leading to their coadministration ("speedballing"). An alternative hypothesis is that HER serves to attenuate the undesired negative effects of COC. To test this notion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were trained to run a straight alley for a daily intravenous (IV) injection of COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for 14 trials. Studies in our laboratory have shown that such animals begin to exhibit approach-avoidance behaviors ("retreats") stemming from concurrent positive and negative associations with the goal box (which, in turn, are the result of COC's immediate rewarding and subsequent dysphoric actions). Thus, retreats can be used as a reliable index of COC's anxiogenic side effects. Following 14 COC-reinforced trials, animals were split into three groups matched on mean retreat frequency. One group (n=11) received IV COC (1.0 mg/kg/injection) for seven additional trials; the remaining two groups (n=10 each) received an IV injection of COC mixed in a single solution with either a low dose (0.025 mg/kg/injection) or a high dose (0.1 mg/kg/injection) of HER. It was hypothesized that adding HER would attenuate the negative consequences of COC administration and thereby produce a reliable decrease in the occurrence of retreats. The resulting data were consistent with this hypothesis, suggesting that "speedballing" in human addicts may be motivated by a desire to reduce the negative impact of COC use.

KW - Cocaine

KW - Drug self-administration

KW - Heroin

KW - Operant behavior

KW - Runway

KW - Speedball

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=11144265760&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=11144265760&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.08.009

DO - 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.08.009

M3 - Article

C2 - 15501308

AN - SCOPUS:11144265760

VL - 79

SP - 317

EP - 324

JO - Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

JF - Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

SN - 0091-3057

IS - 2

ER -