Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas

Arnold Schecter, David T. Szabo, James Miller, Tyra L. Gent, Noor Malik-Bass, Malte Petersen, Olaf Paepke, Justin A. Colacino, Linda S. Hynan, T. Robert Harris, Sunitha Malla, Linda S. Birnbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food. Objectives: We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets. Methods: Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS. Results: Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42%) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively. Conclusions: α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1260-1264
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume120
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Stereoisomerism
Food
hexabromocyclododecane
Weights and Measures
Flame Retardants
Butter
Polystyrenes
Poultry
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • Dallas
  • Food
  • HBCD
  • Hexabromocyclododecane
  • Stereoisomers
  • Texas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Schecter, A., Szabo, D. T., Miller, J., Gent, T. L., Malik-Bass, N., Petersen, M., ... Birnbaum, L. S. (2012). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(9), 1260-1264. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1204993

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas. / Schecter, Arnold; Szabo, David T.; Miller, James; Gent, Tyra L.; Malik-Bass, Noor; Petersen, Malte; Paepke, Olaf; Colacino, Justin A.; Hynan, Linda S.; Robert Harris, T.; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda S.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 120, No. 9, 2012, p. 1260-1264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schecter, A, Szabo, DT, Miller, J, Gent, TL, Malik-Bass, N, Petersen, M, Paepke, O, Colacino, JA, Hynan, LS, Robert Harris, T, Malla, S & Birnbaum, LS 2012, 'Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas', Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 1260-1264. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1204993
Schecter A, Szabo DT, Miller J, Gent TL, Malik-Bass N, Petersen M et al. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(9):1260-1264. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1204993
Schecter, Arnold ; Szabo, David T. ; Miller, James ; Gent, Tyra L. ; Malik-Bass, Noor ; Petersen, Malte ; Paepke, Olaf ; Colacino, Justin A. ; Hynan, Linda S. ; Robert Harris, T. ; Malla, Sunitha ; Birnbaum, Linda S. / Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012 ; Vol. 120, No. 9. pp. 1260-1264.
@article{677d575fc7e4454698323fa62beb1b38,
title = "Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas",
abstract = "Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food. Objectives: We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets. Methods: Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS. Results: Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42{\%}) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively. Conclusions: α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.",
keywords = "Dallas, Food, HBCD, Hexabromocyclododecane, Stereoisomers, Texas",
author = "Arnold Schecter and Szabo, {David T.} and James Miller and Gent, {Tyra L.} and Noor Malik-Bass and Malte Petersen and Olaf Paepke and Colacino, {Justin A.} and Hynan, {Linda S.} and {Robert Harris}, T. and Sunitha Malla and Birnbaum, {Linda S.}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1289/ehp.1204993",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "120",
pages = "1260--1264",
journal = "Environmental Health Perspectives",
issn = "0091-6765",
publisher = "Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in U.S. food from Dallas, Texas

AU - Schecter, Arnold

AU - Szabo, David T.

AU - Miller, James

AU - Gent, Tyra L.

AU - Malik-Bass, Noor

AU - Petersen, Malte

AU - Paepke, Olaf

AU - Colacino, Justin A.

AU - Hynan, Linda S.

AU - Robert Harris, T.

AU - Malla, Sunitha

AU - Birnbaum, Linda S.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food. Objectives: We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets. Methods: Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS. Results: Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42%) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively. Conclusions: α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.

AB - Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used in polystyrene foams in thermal insulation and electrical equipment. The HBCD commercial mixture consists mainly of α, β, and γ stereoisomers. Health concerns of HBCD exposure include alterations in immune and reproductive systems, neurotoxic effects, and endocrine disruption. Stereoisomer-specific levels of HBCD have not been measured previously in U.S. food. Objectives: We measured HBCD stereoisomer levels in U.S. foods from Dallas, Texas, supermarkets. Methods: Convenience samples of commonly consumed foods were purchased from supermarkets in Dallas in 2009-2010. Food samples included a wide variety of lipid-rich foods: fish, peanut butter, poultry, pork, and beef. Thirty-six individual food samples were collected in 2010 and analyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten pooled food samples previously collected in 2009 for a study of total HBCD levels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were reanalyzed for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS. Results: Of the 36 measured individual foods, 15 (42%) had detectable levels of HBCD. Median (ranges) of α- and γ-HBCD concentrations were 0.003 (< 0.005-1.307) and 0.005 (< 0.010-0.143) ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; β-HBCD was present in three samples with a median (range) of 0.003 (< 0.005-0.019) ng/g ww. Median levels (range) for α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, in pooled samples were 0.077 (0.010-0.310), 0.008 (< 0.002-0.070), and 0.024 (0.012-0.170) ng/g ww, respectively. Conclusions: α-HBCD was detected most frequently and at highest concentrations, followed by γ-, and then β-HBCD, in food samples from Dallas, Texas. Food may be a substantial contributor to the elevated α-HBCD levels observed in humans. These data suggest that larger and more representative sampling should be conducted.

KW - Dallas

KW - Food

KW - HBCD

KW - Hexabromocyclododecane

KW - Stereoisomers

KW - Texas

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84930485784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84930485784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1289/ehp.1204993

DO - 10.1289/ehp.1204993

M3 - Article

VL - 120

SP - 1260

EP - 1264

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - 9

ER -