In pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy, there has been an increased interest in the study of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity outside the 1-70 Hz band of conventional frequency activity (CFA). Research over the last couple of decades has shown that EEG activity in the 70-600 Hz range, termed high frequency oscillations (HFOs), can be recorded intracranially from all brain regions both interictally and at seizure onset. In patients with epilepsy, HFOs are now considered as pathologic regardless of their frequency band although it may be difficult to distinguish them from the physiologic HFOs, which occur in a similar frequency range. Interictal HFOs are likely to be confined mostly to the seizure onset zone, thus providing a new measure for localizing it. More importantly, several studies have linked HFOs to underlying epileptogenicity, suggesting that HFOs can serve as potential biomarkers for the illness. Along with HFOs, analysis of ictal baseline shifts (IBS; or direct current shifts) and infraslow activity (ISA) (ISA: <0.1 Hz) has also attracted attention. Studies have shown that: IBSs can be recorded using the routine AC amplifiers with long time constants; IBSs occur at the time of conventional EEG onset, but in a restricted spatial distribution compared with conventional frequencies; and inclusion of IBS contacts in the resection can be associated with favorable seizure outcome. Only a handful of studies have evaluated all the EEG frequencies together in the same patient group. The latter studies suggest that the seizure onset is best localized by the ictal HFOs, the IBSs tend to provide a broader localization and the conventional frequencies could be non-localizing. However, small number of patients included in these studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding post-operative seizure outcome based on selective or combined resection of HFO, IBS and CFA contacts. Large, preferably prospective, studies are needed to further evaluate the implications of different EEG frequencies in epilepsy.
- high frequency oscillations
- infraslow activity
- intracranial electroencephalogram
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology