High resolution chromosome 3p allelotyping of human lung cancer and preneoplastic/preinvasive bronchial epithelium reveals multiple, discontinuous sites of 3p allele loss and three regions of frequent breakpoints

Ignacio I. Wistuba, Carmen Behrens, Arvind K. Virmani, Gina Mele, Sara Milchgrub, Luc Girard, John W. Fondon, Harold R. Garner, Bruce McKay, Farida Latif, Michael I. Lerman, Stephen Lam, Adi F. Gazdar, John D. Minna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

380 Scopus citations

Abstract

Allele loss involving chromosome arm 3p is one of the most frequent and earliest known genetic events in lung cancer pathogenesis and may affect several potential tumor suppressor gene regions. To further study the role of chromosome 3p allele loss in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, we performed high resolution loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 97 lung cancer and 54 preneoplastic/preinvasive microdissected respiratory epithelial samples using a panel of 28 3p markers. Allelic losses of 3p were detected in 96% of the lung cancers and in 78% of the preneoplastic/preinvasive lesions. The allele losses were often multiple and discontinuous, with areas of LOH interspersed with areas of retention of heterozygosity. Most small cell lung carcinomas (91%) and squamous cell carcinomas (95%) demonstrated larger 3p segments of allele loss, whereas most (71%) of the adenocarcinomas and preneoplastic/preinvasive lesions had smaller chromosome areas of 3p allele loss. There was a progressive increase in the frequency and size of 3p allele loss regions with increasing severity of histopathological preneoplastic/preinvasive changes. In analyses of the specific parental allele lost comparing 42 preneoplastic/preinvasive foci with those lost in the lung cancer in the same patient (n = 10), the same parental allele was lost in 88% of 244 comparisons for 28 3p markers (P = 1.2 x 10-36 for this occurring by chance). This indicates the occurrence of allele-specific loss in these foci similar to that seen in the tumor by a currently unknown mechanism. Analysis of all of the data indicated multiple regions of localized 3p allele loss including telomere-D3S1597, D3S1111-D3S2432, D3S2432-D3S1537, D3S1537, D3S1537-D3S1612, D3S4604/Luca19.1-D3S4622/Luca4.1, D3S4624/Luca2.1, D3S4624/Luca2.1-D3S1582, D3S1766, D3S1234-D3S1300 (FHIT/FRA3B region centered on D3S1300), D3S1284-D3S1577 (U2020/DUTT1 region centered on D3S1274), and D3S1511-centromere. A panel of six markers in the 600-kb 3p21.3 deletion region showed loss in 77% of the lung cancers, 70% of normal or preneoplastic/preinvasive lesions associated with lung cancer, and 49% of 47 normal, mildly abnormal, or preneoplastic/preinvasive lesions found in smokers without lung cancer; however, loss was seen in 0% of 18 epithelial samples from seven never smokers. The 600-kb 3p21.3 region and the 3p14.2 (FHIT/FRA3B) and 3p12 (U2020/DUTT1) regions were common, independent sites of breakpoints (retention of heterozygosity by some markers and LOH by other markers in the immediate region). We conclude that 3p allele loss is nearly universal in lung cancer pathogenesis; involves multiple, discrete, 3p LOH sites that often show a 'discontinuous LOW' pattern in individual tumors; occurs in preneoplastic/preinvasive lesions in smokers with and without lung cancer (multiple lesions often lose the same parental allele); frequently involves breakpoints in at least three very small defined genomic regions; and appears to have allele loss and breakpoints first occurring in the 600-kb 3p21.3 region. These findings are consistent with previously reported LOH studies in a variety of tumors showing allele loss occurring by mitotic recombination and induced by oxidative damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1949-1960
Number of pages12
JournalCancer research
Volume60
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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