Hypercholesterolaemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Both total and LDL cholesterol levels are three-fold higher at the end of the first year of life and about four-fold higher in adulthood compared with the neonatal period. In the USA, only 25% of infants are exclusively breastfed and simple carbohydrate-rich formulas are preferentially consumed. Spikes in fasting glucose and insulin have been reported in formula-fed infants and are associated with higher levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, suggesting a potential link between high simple sugar intake and consequent increase in LDL cholesterol in early childhood.
- Cardiovascular disease prevention
- Lipid metabolism
- Low-density lipoprotein
- Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine