Higher Total Body Irradiation Dose Intensity in Fludarabine/TBI-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen Is Associated with Inferior Survival in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation

Mehdi Hamadani, Manoj Khanal, Kwang W. Ahn, Carlos Litovich, Victor A. Chow, Alireza Eghtedar, Reem Karmali, Allison Winter, Timothy S. Fenske, Craig Sauter, Mohamed A. Kharfan-Dabaja, Farrukh T. Awan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Disease relapse is the most common cause of therapy failure in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). It is not known whether or not increasing total body irradiation (TBI) dose from 2 to 4 Gy in a RIC platform can provide improved disease control without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Using the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with NHL receiving RIC allo-HCT with either fludarabine (Flu)/2-Gy TBI versus Flu/4-Gy TBI. In the CIBMTR registry, 413 adult patients with NHL underwent a first allo-HCT using either a matched related or unrelated donor between 2008 and 2017, using a RIC regimen with either Flu/2-Gy TBI (n = 349) or Flu/4-Gy TBI (n = 64). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included acute (a) and chronic (c) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), NRM, relapse/progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). At baseline, the Flu/2-Gy TBI cohort had significantly fewer patients with Karnofsky performance status ≥90 and significantly more patients had a higher HCT-comorbidity index. On multivariate analysis, the 2 conditioning cohorts were not significantly different in terms of risk of grade 3 to 4 aGVHD or cGVHD. Compared to Flu/2-Gy TBI, the Flu/4-Gy TBI conditioning was associated with a significantly higher risk of NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.89; P = .02) and inferior OS (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.23, P = .03). No significant differences were seen in the risk of relapse/progression (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.29, P = .33) or PFS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.54, P = .61) between the 2 regimens. Comparing Flu/2-Gy TBI versus Flu/4-Gy TBI cohorts, the 5-year adjusted outcomes were NRM (28% versus 47%; P = .005), relapse/progression (35% versus 29%; P = .28), PFS (37% versus 24%; P = .03), and OS (51% versus 31%; P = .001), respectively. Relapse was the most common cause of death in both cohorts. In patients with NHL undergoing Flu/TB I-based conditioning, augmenting TBI dose from 2 to 4 Gy is associated with higher NRM and inferior OS, without any significant benefit in terms of disease control. The optimal dose is 2-Gy in the RIC Flu/TBI platform for lymphomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1099-1105
Number of pages7
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2020

Keywords

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant
  • Fludarabine
  • Reduced-intensity conditioning
  • TBI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

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