Hippocampal volume is reduced in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder but not in psychotic bipolar i disorder demonstrated by both manual tracing and automated parcellation (FreeSurfer)

Sara J M Arnold, Elena I. Ivleva, Tejas A. Gopal, Anil P. Reddy, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Carolyn B. Sacco, Alan N. Francis, Neeraj Tandon, Anup S. Bidesi, Bradley Witte, Gaurav Poudyal, Godfrey D. Pearlson, John A. Sweeney, Brett A. Clementz, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Carol A. Tamminga

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49 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study examined hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for psychotic illness in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) psychosis sample, contrasting manual tracing and semiautomated (FreeSurfer) region-of-interest outcomes. The study sample (n = 596) included probands with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 71), schizoaffective disorder (SAD, n = 70), and psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n = 86); their first-degree relatives (SZ-Rel, n = 74; SAD-Rel, n = 62; BDP-Rel, n = 88); and healthy controls (HC, n = 145). Hippocampal volumes were derived from 3Tesla T1-weighted MPRAGE images using manual tracing/3DSlicer3.6.3 and semiautomated parcellation/FreeSurfer5.1,64bit. Volumetric outcomes from both methodologies were contrasted in HC and probands and relatives across the 3 diagnoses, using mixed-effect regression models (SAS9.3 Proc MIXED); Pearson correlations between manual tracing and FreeSurfer outcomes were computed. SZ (P =.0007-.02) and SAD (P =.003-.14) had lower hippocampal volumes compared with HC, whereas BDP showed normal volumes bilaterally (P =.18-.55). All relative groups had hippocampal volumes not different from controls (P =.12-.97) and higher than those observed in probands (P =.003-.09), except for FreeSurfer measures in bipolar probands vs relatives (P =.64-.99). Outcomes from manual tracing and FreeSurfer showed direct, moderate to strong, correlations (r =.51-.73, P <.05). These findings from a large psychosis sample support decreased hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not for psychotic bipolar I disorder, and may reflect a cumulative effect of divergent primary disease processes and/or lifetime medication use. Manual tracing and semiautomated parcellation regional volumetric approaches may provide useful outcomes for defining measurable biomarkers underlying severe mental illness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-249
Number of pages17
JournalSchizophrenia bulletin
Volume41
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Keywords

  • FreeSurfer
  • hippocampus
  • manual tracing
  • psychotic bipolar disorder
  • schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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    Arnold, S. J. M., Ivleva, E. I., Gopal, T. A., Reddy, A. P., Jeon-Slaughter, H., Sacco, C. B., Francis, A. N., Tandon, N., Bidesi, A. S., Witte, B., Poudyal, G., Pearlson, G. D., Sweeney, J. A., Clementz, B. A., Keshavan, M. S., & Tamminga, C. A. (2015). Hippocampal volume is reduced in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder but not in psychotic bipolar i disorder demonstrated by both manual tracing and automated parcellation (FreeSurfer). Schizophrenia bulletin, 41(1), 233-249. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbu009