Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S. urban communities and design of an environmental intervention

The inner-city asthma study

Ellen F. Crain, Michelle Walter, George T. O'Connor, Herman Mitchell, Rebecca S. Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, George S. Malindzak, Paul Enright, Richard Evans, Wayne Morgan, James W. Stout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

158 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most published environmental remediation interventions have been directed at single allergens and have employed demanding strategies; few have been performed in the homes of inner-city children disproportionately burdened by asthma. Our objective was a) to describe the allergen sensitivities, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and home environmental characteristics of a national sample of inner-city children with moderate to severe asthma and b) to develop and implement a multifaceted, home-based comprehensive intervention to reduce home allergens and ETS, tailored to the specific sensitization and exposure profiles of those children. Allergen skin testing and a home evaluation were performed to determine the presence of ETS and factors known to be associated with increased indoor allergen levels. Based on published remediation techniques, a home environmental intervention, organized into modules, each addressing one of five specific allergen groups or ETS, was designed. Of 994 allergic children from seven U.S. urban communities, 937 successfully completed baseline interviews and home allergen surveys and were enrolled. More than 50% of children had positive skin tests to three or more allergen groups. Cockroaches were reported in 58% of homes, wall-to-wall carpeting in the child's bedroom in 55%, a smoker in 48%, mice or rats in 40%, and furry pets in 28%. More than 60% of enrolled families received four or more modules, and between 94% and 98% of all modules were completed. We conclude that most inner-city children with moderate to severe asthma are sensitized to multiple indoor allergens and that environmental factors known to be associated with asthma severity are commonly present in their homes. The intervention developed for the Inner-City Asthma Study employs accepted methods to address an array of allergens and ETS exposure while ensuring that the intervention is tailored to the specific sensitization profiles and home characteristics of these children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)939-945
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume110
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2002

Fingerprint

urban design
asthma
Allergens
Asthma
Tobacco
Smoke
skin
Skin
remediation
urban community
inner city
allergen
cockroach
Cockroaches
Pets
Environmental Exposure
Skin Tests
Remediation
Rats
environmental factor

Keywords

  • Environmental intervention
  • Home environmental characteristics
  • Inner-city children
  • Pediatric asthma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S. urban communities and design of an environmental intervention : The inner-city asthma study. / Crain, Ellen F.; Walter, Michelle; O'Connor, George T.; Mitchell, Herman; Gruchalla, Rebecca S.; Kattan, Meyer; Malindzak, George S.; Enright, Paul; Evans, Richard; Morgan, Wayne; Stout, James W.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 110, No. 9, 09.2002, p. 939-945.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Crain, EF, Walter, M, O'Connor, GT, Mitchell, H, Gruchalla, RS, Kattan, M, Malindzak, GS, Enright, P, Evans, R, Morgan, W & Stout, JW 2002, 'Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S. urban communities and design of an environmental intervention: The inner-city asthma study', Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 939-945.
Crain, Ellen F. ; Walter, Michelle ; O'Connor, George T. ; Mitchell, Herman ; Gruchalla, Rebecca S. ; Kattan, Meyer ; Malindzak, George S. ; Enright, Paul ; Evans, Richard ; Morgan, Wayne ; Stout, James W. / Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S. urban communities and design of an environmental intervention : The inner-city asthma study. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 ; Vol. 110, No. 9. pp. 939-945.
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