Background: Practices regarding recovery after mastectomy vary significantly, including overnight stay versus discharge same day. Expanded use of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) algorithms and the recent COVID pandemic have led to increased number of patients who undergo home recovery after mastectomy (HRAM). Methods: The Patient Safety Quality Committee of the American Society of Breast Surgeons created a multispecialty working group to review the literature evaluating HRAM after mastectomy with and without implant-based reconstruction. A literature review was performed regarding this topic; the group then developed guidance for patient selection and tools for implementation. Results: Multiple, retrospective series have reported that patients discharged day of mastectomy have similar risk of complications compared with those kept overnight, including risk of hematoma (0-5.1%). Multimodal strategies that improve nausea and analgesia improve likelihood of HRAM. Patients who undergo surgery in ambulatory surgery centers and by high-volume breast surgeons are more likely to be discharged day of surgery. When evaluating unplanned return to care, the only significant factors are African American race and increased comorbidities. Conclusions: Review of current literature demonstrates that HRAM is a safe option in appropriate patients. Choice of method of recovery should consider patient factors, such as comorbidities and social situation, and requires input from the multidisciplinary team. Preoperative education regarding pain management, drain care, and after-hour access to medical care are crucial components to a successful program. Additional investigation is needed as these programs become more prevalent to assess quality measures such as unplanned return to care, complications, and patient satisfaction.
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