Shoulder osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and debilitating condition and a source of high morbidity and medical expenditures across the world among individuals older than 60 years. Shoulder OA results in the gradual destruction of articular cartilage of the humeral head and glenoid component, causing inflammation, pain, and a restricted range of motion. Most patients are diagnosed with shoulder OA after experiencing shoulder pain and stiffness, and the diagnosis is often made after medical and physical histories are obtained and physical and imaging examinations are performed. Use of various surgical techniques such as total anatomic or reverse shoulder arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty has increased in recent years, resulting in reduced morbidity and improved functional status of patients. However, the rate of surgical complications such as premature loosening of components is significant, reducing the effectiveness of such procedures. Data in the literature indicate that high-grade fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscle before surgery is associated with postoperative glenoid component loosening. High-grade rotator cuff fatty infiltration and atrophy have been found to be associated with more severe Walch classification–based glenoid morphology subtypes, increased joint line medialization, glenoid bone loss, and increased pathologic glenoid version. The authors describe how advanced imaging techniques are used for preoperative evaluation of the shoulder and discuss how to measure glenoid version and bone stock and classify glenoid morphology types on the basis of Walch classification, as these parameters are commonly used in surgical planning. Methods involving the use of Friedman and paleoglenoid lines for respective measurements are illustrated by using three-dimensional CT and MRI case examples.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging