Spermatogenesis in humans is comprised of a series of highly complicated cellular events, necessary to support the production of an upward of 200 million sperm daily from puberty through the entire adulthood of a healthy man. Recent advances in the field using the techniques of cell and molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry have unraveled many of the mysteries in spermatogenesis. In this Chapter, we highlight some recent advances in the field regarding the biology of human spermatogenesis. We also summarize and discuss recent advances regarding the regulation of spermatogenesis in humans. Due to rapid advances in our understanding of spermatogenesis and the large number of published reports in the literature in the last 2–3 decades, we focus on rapidly developing areas to stimulate the interest of our readers, in particular in areas that offer advances for the treatment of infertility in men.