Hypertension and incident cardiovascular events after next-generation BTKi therapy initiation

Sunnia T. Chen, Leylah Azali, Lindsay Rosen, Qiuhong Zhao, Tracy Wiczer, Marilly Palettas, John Gambril, Onaopepo Kola-Kehinde, Patrick Ruz, Sujay Kalathoor, Kerry Rogers, Adam Kittai, Michael Grever, Farrukh Awan, John C. Byrd, Jennifer Woyach, Seema A. Bhat, Daniel Addison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Post-market analyses revealed unanticipated links between first-generation Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) therapy, ibrutinib, and profound early hypertension. Yet, whether this is seen with novel selective second (next)-generation BTKi therapy, acalabrutinib, is unknown. Methods: Leveraging a large cohort of consecutive B cell cancer patients treated with acalabrutinib from 2014 to 2020, we assessed the incidence and ramifications of new or worsened hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 130 mmHg] after acalabrutinib initiation. Secondary endpoints were major cardiovascular events (MACE: arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, cardiac death) and disease progression. Observed incident hypertension rates were compared to Framingham heart-predicted and ibrutinib-related rates. Multivariable regression and survival analysis were used to define factors associated with new/worsened hypertension and MACE, and the relationship between early SBP increase and MACE risk. Further, the effect of standard antihypertensive classes on the prevention of acalabrutinib-related hypertension was assessed. Results: Overall, from 280 acalabrutinib-treated patients, 48.9% developed new/worsened hypertension over a median of 41 months. The cumulative incidence of new hypertension by 1 year was 53.9%, including 1.7% with high-grade (≥ 3) hypertension. Applying the JNC 8 cutoff BP of ≥ 140/90 mmHg, the observed new hypertension rate was 20.5% at 1 year, > eightfold higher than the Framingham-predicted rate of 2.4% (RR 8.5, P < 0.001), yet 34.1% lower than ibrutinib (12.9 observed-to-expected ratio, P < 0.001). In multivariable regression, prior arrhythmias and Black ancestry were associated with new hypertension (HR 1.63, HR 4.35, P < 0.05). The degree of SBP rise within 1 year of treatment initiation predicted MACE risk (42% HR increase for each + 5 mmHg SBP rise, P < 0.001). No single antihypertensive class prevented worsened acalabrutinib-related hypertension. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that hypertension may be a class effect of BTKi therapies and precedes major cardiotoxic events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number92
JournalJournal of Hematology and Oncology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Acalabrutinib
  • Cancer-targeted therapy
  • Cardio-oncology
  • Cardiovascular events
  • Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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