OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the incidence of hypospadias is increasing and whether racial differences among patients are significant, we evaluated the current incidence of hypospadias and patient race in an equal-access healthcare system. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review of discharge records between 1990 and 1998 from 15 military treatment facilities to determine the total number of male live births and the number of male live births with hypospadias reported by race (categorized as white, black, Asian, Native American, and unknown). RESULTS: Among 99,210 male live births, 709 cases of hypospadias were identified (0.7%). Of the total male live births, 68,444 were white, 18,984 were black, 1761 were Asian, 175 were Native American, and 9846 were unknown, with an incidence of hypospadias of 0.8%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Racial differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: The 0.7% incidence of hypospadias detected is near the upper limit of what has been historically reported. No significant difference between races was found, but the incidence of hypospadias in minorities is higher than previously reported.
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