Identification of Low-Abundance Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis Using Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassays

Samantha Stanley, Chi Chiu Mok, Kamala Vanarsa, Deena Habazi, Jennifer Li, Claudia Predoza, Ramesh Saxena, Chandra Mohan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To investigate the utility of a sensitive platform using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for the identification of low-abundance urinary protein biomarkers in lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: Forty-eight urine samples were obtained from subjects in 2 independent cohorts, each consisting of 3 groups (matched for age, sex, and race) of 8 patients with active LN (renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI] >0), 8 patients with inactive SLE (renal SLEDAI 0), and 8 healthy controls. Samples were tested using a preexisting 40-plex ECL panel. A custom 5-plex ECL panel was then developed for further validation studies and used to test 140 urine samples (from 44 patients with active LN, 41 patients with inactive SLE, 28 healthy controls, and 27 patients with other kidney diseases). Results: Levels of 17 urinary proteins were elevated (P < 0.05 by 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test) in samples from patients with active LN compared to samples from patients with inactive SLE and healthy controls in cohort 1, while 9 were similarly elevated in cohort 2. Of these, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-12p40, IL-15, interferon-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and thymus and activation–regulated chemokine (TARC) were chosen for further validation. These 5 proteins were undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hence, a custom 5-plex ECL panel was developed and used to validate the results from the initial 40-plex screening panel. Urinary IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC levels were again significantly elevated in patients with active LN compared to those with inactive SLE and healthy controls, and correlated well with the renal SLEDAI and physician's global assessment of disease activity (R > 0.67, P < 0.05). All 5 urinary proteins were more frequently elevated in LN compared to controls with other chronic kidney diseases, although overall group differences attained significance only for urinary IL-7 and IL-15. Conclusion: Urinary levels of IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC are potentially useful diagnostic tools in LN. The use of ECL assays may allow detection of urinary biomarkers that are below ELISA detection limits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArthritis and Rheumatology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Lupus Nephritis
Immunoassay
Biomarkers
Interleukin-15
Interleukin-7
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Urine
Interleukin-12 Subunit p40
Kidney
Proteins
Validation Studies
Kidney Diseases
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Limit of Detection
Research Design
Age Groups
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology

Cite this

Identification of Low-Abundance Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis Using Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassays. / Stanley, Samantha; Mok, Chi Chiu; Vanarsa, Kamala; Habazi, Deena; Li, Jennifer; Predoza, Claudia; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra.

In: Arthritis and Rheumatology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stanley, Samantha ; Mok, Chi Chiu ; Vanarsa, Kamala ; Habazi, Deena ; Li, Jennifer ; Predoza, Claudia ; Saxena, Ramesh ; Mohan, Chandra. / Identification of Low-Abundance Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis Using Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassays. In: Arthritis and Rheumatology. 2019.
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abstract = "Objective: To investigate the utility of a sensitive platform using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for the identification of low-abundance urinary protein biomarkers in lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: Forty-eight urine samples were obtained from subjects in 2 independent cohorts, each consisting of 3 groups (matched for age, sex, and race) of 8 patients with active LN (renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI] >0), 8 patients with inactive SLE (renal SLEDAI 0), and 8 healthy controls. Samples were tested using a preexisting 40-plex ECL panel. A custom 5-plex ECL panel was then developed for further validation studies and used to test 140 urine samples (from 44 patients with active LN, 41 patients with inactive SLE, 28 healthy controls, and 27 patients with other kidney diseases). Results: Levels of 17 urinary proteins were elevated (P < 0.05 by 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test) in samples from patients with active LN compared to samples from patients with inactive SLE and healthy controls in cohort 1, while 9 were similarly elevated in cohort 2. Of these, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-12p40, IL-15, interferon-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and thymus and activation–regulated chemokine (TARC) were chosen for further validation. These 5 proteins were undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hence, a custom 5-plex ECL panel was developed and used to validate the results from the initial 40-plex screening panel. Urinary IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC levels were again significantly elevated in patients with active LN compared to those with inactive SLE and healthy controls, and correlated well with the renal SLEDAI and physician's global assessment of disease activity (R > 0.67, P < 0.05). All 5 urinary proteins were more frequently elevated in LN compared to controls with other chronic kidney diseases, although overall group differences attained significance only for urinary IL-7 and IL-15. Conclusion: Urinary levels of IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC are potentially useful diagnostic tools in LN. The use of ECL assays may allow detection of urinary biomarkers that are below ELISA detection limits.",
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AU - Stanley, Samantha

AU - Mok, Chi Chiu

AU - Vanarsa, Kamala

AU - Habazi, Deena

AU - Li, Jennifer

AU - Predoza, Claudia

AU - Saxena, Ramesh

AU - Mohan, Chandra

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Objective: To investigate the utility of a sensitive platform using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for the identification of low-abundance urinary protein biomarkers in lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: Forty-eight urine samples were obtained from subjects in 2 independent cohorts, each consisting of 3 groups (matched for age, sex, and race) of 8 patients with active LN (renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI] >0), 8 patients with inactive SLE (renal SLEDAI 0), and 8 healthy controls. Samples were tested using a preexisting 40-plex ECL panel. A custom 5-plex ECL panel was then developed for further validation studies and used to test 140 urine samples (from 44 patients with active LN, 41 patients with inactive SLE, 28 healthy controls, and 27 patients with other kidney diseases). Results: Levels of 17 urinary proteins were elevated (P < 0.05 by 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test) in samples from patients with active LN compared to samples from patients with inactive SLE and healthy controls in cohort 1, while 9 were similarly elevated in cohort 2. Of these, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-12p40, IL-15, interferon-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and thymus and activation–regulated chemokine (TARC) were chosen for further validation. These 5 proteins were undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hence, a custom 5-plex ECL panel was developed and used to validate the results from the initial 40-plex screening panel. Urinary IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC levels were again significantly elevated in patients with active LN compared to those with inactive SLE and healthy controls, and correlated well with the renal SLEDAI and physician's global assessment of disease activity (R > 0.67, P < 0.05). All 5 urinary proteins were more frequently elevated in LN compared to controls with other chronic kidney diseases, although overall group differences attained significance only for urinary IL-7 and IL-15. Conclusion: Urinary levels of IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC are potentially useful diagnostic tools in LN. The use of ECL assays may allow detection of urinary biomarkers that are below ELISA detection limits.

AB - Objective: To investigate the utility of a sensitive platform using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for the identification of low-abundance urinary protein biomarkers in lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: Forty-eight urine samples were obtained from subjects in 2 independent cohorts, each consisting of 3 groups (matched for age, sex, and race) of 8 patients with active LN (renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI] >0), 8 patients with inactive SLE (renal SLEDAI 0), and 8 healthy controls. Samples were tested using a preexisting 40-plex ECL panel. A custom 5-plex ECL panel was then developed for further validation studies and used to test 140 urine samples (from 44 patients with active LN, 41 patients with inactive SLE, 28 healthy controls, and 27 patients with other kidney diseases). Results: Levels of 17 urinary proteins were elevated (P < 0.05 by 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test) in samples from patients with active LN compared to samples from patients with inactive SLE and healthy controls in cohort 1, while 9 were similarly elevated in cohort 2. Of these, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-12p40, IL-15, interferon-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and thymus and activation–regulated chemokine (TARC) were chosen for further validation. These 5 proteins were undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hence, a custom 5-plex ECL panel was developed and used to validate the results from the initial 40-plex screening panel. Urinary IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC levels were again significantly elevated in patients with active LN compared to those with inactive SLE and healthy controls, and correlated well with the renal SLEDAI and physician's global assessment of disease activity (R > 0.67, P < 0.05). All 5 urinary proteins were more frequently elevated in LN compared to controls with other chronic kidney diseases, although overall group differences attained significance only for urinary IL-7 and IL-15. Conclusion: Urinary levels of IL-7, IL-12p40, IL-15, IP-10, and TARC are potentially useful diagnostic tools in LN. The use of ECL assays may allow detection of urinary biomarkers that are below ELISA detection limits.

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