In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, we induced a germline mutation called Lps2, which abolishes cytokine responses to double-stranded RNA and severely impairs responses to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), indicating that TLR3 and TLR4 might share a specific, proximal transducer. Here we identify the Lps2 mutation: a distal frameshift error in a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TIR) adaptor protein known as Trif or Ticam-1. TrifLps2 homozygotes are markedly resistant to the toxic effects of LPS, and are hypersusceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus, failing to produce type I interferons when infected. Compound homozygosity for mutations at Trif and MyD88 (a cytoplasmic TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein) loci ablates all responses to LPS, indicating that only two signalling pathways emanate from the LPS receptor. However, a Trif-independent cell population is detectable when TrifLps2 mutant macrophages are stimulated with LPS. This reveals that an alternative MyD88-dependent 'adaptor X' pathway is present in some, but not all, macrophages, and implies afferent immune specialization.
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