Progesterone receptors (PRs) mediate the actions of progestin hormones and play important roles during the reproductive cycle and pregnancy. Since PR expression is known to be regulated by estrogen, we have undertaken studies to examine the mechanisms underlying this regulation. We have identified multiple distinct regions of the rat PR gene, widely spaced and spread throughout the 5′-flanking region, the 5′-untranslated region, and the first exon (between -2264 and +2241), that can form a strong estrogen-responsive enhancer when linked together. Estrogen-responsive activities for two of the regions in isolation (+461/+636 and +2176/+2241) were demonstrated in one or more homologous or heterologous promoter contexts. The contributions of the other regions (-2264/-1970, -1167/-957 and +2088/+2110) to the overall activity of the assembled enhancer were cryptic in that they were only observed in the context of the other PR gene fragments, not in isolation. We identified four weak, but functional, imperfect estrogen response elements (EREs) in these regions of the PR gene, each differing from the consensus by 2 base pairs. In addition, we identified four ERE half-sites in the PR gene, three of which are paired (i.e. < 150 base pairs away) with the EREs in the estrogen-responsive regions. Competitive gel shift assays demonstrated weak, but detectable, binding of estrogen receptor to the EREs. Of note, the estrogen-responsive enhancer assembled from the five regions of the PR gene exhibited promoter specificity; it conferred estrogen responsiveness of the distal PR gene promoter, but it failed to enhance the endogenous estrogen responsiveness of the proximal PR gene promoter. The positioning of response elements in the rat PR gene, which we show to be unique among steroid hormone-regulated genes, may have functional consequences for the regulation of the magnitude and timing of PR gene expression by estrogen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology