Identifying additional risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis among pediatric antiphospholipid antibodies carriers

Elizabeth Sloan, Tracey Wright, Yu Zuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been extensively reported in children, but investigations into thrombotic risks associated with aPL positivity in pediatric patients is scarce. Positive aPL are not uncommon in pediatric connective tissue diseases (CTD), but identification and management of these patients is challenging due to lack of validated criteria and a paucity of data. In this study, we identify potential additional risk factors for thrombosis in a unique cohort of pediatric aPL positive carriers. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on 491 pediatric patients with CTD seen in our institution from 2001 to 2019. Patients without persistently moderate to high titer aPL at least 12 weeks apart were excluded. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate correlation between different risk factors and thrombotic events. Results: Seventy-one aPL positive children with underlying CTD are included in this cohort. The majority (87%) are female and of Hispanic ethnicity (56%). Mean age of the cohort at the diagnosis of connective tissue disease is 12.7 (SD 2.6) years, and mean age of first positive aPL is 13.3 (SD 2.5) years. Average length of follow-up is 4.3 (SD 2.5) years. Four (5.6%) patients experienced arterial thrombosis, and 11 (15.5%) had venous thrombosis. Fifty-seven (80.3%) patients did not have any thromboembolic events. Among traditional risk factors and signs of endothelial injury, only Raynaud’s phenomena demonstrated significant association with arterial thrombosis (OR = 8.4, 95%CI 1.13–111, P = 0.039), and hypertension or anti-hypertensive use demonstrated significant association with venous thrombosis (OR = 8.387, 95%CI 1.2 – 94, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Data from our cohort suggest that Raynaud’s phenomenon is a potential predictor of arterial thrombosis while the presence of hypertension or anti-hypertensive medication use is a potential predictor of venous thrombosis in aPL positive pediatric carriers. Further studies investigating pediatric aPL profiles and risk factors for development of thrombosis are needed to help guide clinicians in caring for these challenging patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)828-832
Number of pages5
JournalLupus
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Thrombosis
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • systemic lupus erythematosus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

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