Objective: Juvenile ischemic osteonecrosis (JIO) of the femoral head is one of the most serious hip disorders causing a permanent deformity of the femoral head in childhood. We recently reported that interleukin 6 (IL6) is predominantly increased in the hip synovial fluid of patients with JIO and that articular chondrocytes are primary source of IL6. This study investigated whether an inhibition of IL6 receptor improves cartilage preservation and bone healing in JIO. Method: A small animal model (i.e., 6-week-old mouse) of JIO was treated with either saline or tocilizumab, an IL6 receptor blocker, for 6 weeks. Results: TUNEL-positive chondrocytes in the articular cartilage were reduced by the tocilizumab treatment, concomitant with the increase in cartilage matrix. The levels of a cartilage anabolic marker Sox9 was significantly increased in the articular cartilage of mice treated with tocilizumab. Micro-CT assessment showed tocilizumab treatment significantly increased trabecular epiphyseal bone volume (P = 0.001, n = 10), thickness (P = 0.007) and number (P = 0.014) and decreased bone separation (P = 0.002) and its deformity (P = 0.003). A bone formation marker, BMP2, and an angiogenic marker, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were both significantly increased by tocilizumab treatment under hypoxia using human chondrocytes while the bone resorption marker, RANKL/OPG ratio, was reduced. Conclusion: Tocilizumab treatment following ischemic osteonecrosis has cartilage anabolic effect and increases bone volume in JIO mouse model. The findings lead to a possible application of tocilizumab for preclinical study using a large animal model of JIO and a clinical trial to validate this treatment.
- Bone formation
- Cartilage anabolism
- Juvenile ischemic osteonecrosis
- Legg-calve-perthes disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine