Purpose: Organ preservation or nonoperative management of rectal cancer is of growing interest. Image guided adaptive endorectal brachytherapy is a radiation dose escalation modality: we explored its role in elderly patients unfit for surgery and patients refusing surgery. Methods and Materials: In this registry study, patients with rectal cancer who were ineligible for surgery received 40 Gy in 16 fractions of pelvic external beam radiation therapy. They subsequently received 3 weekly image guided adaptive brachytherapy boosts of 10 Gy to the residual tumor, for a total of 30 Gy in 3 fractions. Complete clinical response (cCR) and local control were the primary endpoints. Results: 94 patients were included; the median age was 81.1 years. With a median follow-up of 1.9 years, the proportion of cCR was 86.2%, the tumor regrowth proportion was 13.6%, and the cumulative incidence of local relapse was 2.7% at 1 year and 16.8% at 2 years. When considering responders and nonresponders, the 2-year local control was 71.5%. The overall survival at 2 years was 63.6%. Acute rectal grade 1 to 2 toxicity included all patients: 12.8% of patients had late bleeding requiring iron replacement, blood transfusions, or argon plasma therapy. Conclusions: Results of this registry study, evaluating radiation dose escalation for elderly medically unfit patients with unselected tumors, reveal that a high proportion of patients achieved cCR with a manageable toxicity profile. This technology will likely contribute to the challenging nonoperative management paradigm of rectal cancer.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2019|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research