Image-guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A computed tomography-based assessment of fiducial marker migration between placement and 7 days

Kiran A. Kumar, Tianming Wu, Nathan Tonlaar, Christopher Stepaniak, Kamil M. Yenice, Stanley L. Liauw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether clinically significant fiducial marker migration occurs immediately after prostatic implantation. Methods and materials: One hundred patients with transperineal (n = 39) or transrectal (n = 61) placement of 3 gold fiducial markers underwent computed tomography scans on day 0 (after placement) and day 7 (at radiation planning). Each marker was marked as a point of interest in a treatment planning system. An automated point-based algorithm was then used to coregister the day 0 and day 7 images by matching the markers through rigid translations and rotations. The mean distance between fiducial pairs (d) was recorded to assess the degree of seed migration. Prostate contours were delineated, and the day 0 prostate volumes were uniformly expanded by 1, 3, and 5 mm. The percentage of the day 7 prostate volume covered by each day 0 prostate with expansion was calculated to assess whether prostate contours, if performed on day 0, would adequately cover the prostate on day 7. Results: The average d for all patients was 0.78 ± 0.45 mm; only 1 patient had d > 2 mm. Placement technique, hormonal therapy, prostate size, and marker distance from the capsule were not associated with d (P >.05). The mean percentages of day 7 prostate volumes covered by the day 0 prostate plus 1, 3, and 5 mm were 98.3%, 99.8%, and 100%, respectively. With an expansion of 3 mm, 98% of men had >. 95% of day 0 volume covered; with an expansion of 5 mm, 100% of men had 100% of the day 0 volume covered. Conclusions: There is minimal change in the relative positions of fiducial markers (average d < 1.0 mm) 1 week after placement. A 1- to 3-mm expansion would account for the variation in seed position for the vast majority of cases. These results suggest that planning could be performed on the day of implantation without adverse consequence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-247
Number of pages7
JournalPractical Radiation Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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